Chapter 11 - Motor System at Radboud University | Flashcards & Summaries

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corticospinal tracts
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main efferent pathways from the motor cortex to the brainstem to the spinal cord


-> tracts that control limbs and digits cross from one hemisphere to the opposite side of the spinal cord (lateral corticospinal tract)

-> parts that control trunk movements do not cross (anterior (or ventral) corticospinal tract)

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efferent


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movement information is efferent, it goes from the brain to the body's muscles

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locked-in-syndrome

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patients are awake and aware but cannot move or communicate verbally because nearly all voluntary muscles except those of the eyes are completely paralysed 

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Layer IV and Layer V in the motor and sensory system
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Layer IV: afferent -> thicker in the sensory cortex, thinner in the motor cortex


Layer V: efferent -> thicker in the motor cortex, thinner in the sensory cortex

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Prefrontal cortex

Premotor cortex

Motor cortex


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Prefrontal cortex: plans movements

Premotor cortex: organizes movement sequences (e.g. coordination of two hands)

Motor cortex: produces specific movements (e.g. gripping, other skilled movements)

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species-typical movements
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controlled by the brainstem


-> innate and organised by brainstem neurons 


(experiments by Hess -> cats with electrodes in their brain)


producing complex patterns of adaptive behaviour is an important brainstem function

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anterior and posterior tracts
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in the spinal cord,

anterior tracts are motor and

posterior tracts are sensory

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cerebral palsy (CP)


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brainstem damage mostly acquired before or shortly after birth 

 -> voluntary movements become difficult, while many other aspects of conscious behaviour remain intact

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quadriplegia

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paralysis and loss of sensation in the arms and legs 

(everything below the cut)

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paraplegia


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paralysis and loss of sensation in the legs and lower body 

(both sides)

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topographic organization

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neural spatial representation of the body or areas of the sensory world perceived by a sensory organ


-> homunculus for somatosensory and motor areas

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afferent

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somatosensory information is afferent, it goes to the brain

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Q:


corticospinal tracts
A:

main efferent pathways from the motor cortex to the brainstem to the spinal cord


-> tracts that control limbs and digits cross from one hemisphere to the opposite side of the spinal cord (lateral corticospinal tract)

-> parts that control trunk movements do not cross (anterior (or ventral) corticospinal tract)

Q:

efferent


A:

movement information is efferent, it goes from the brain to the body's muscles

Q:

locked-in-syndrome

A:

patients are awake and aware but cannot move or communicate verbally because nearly all voluntary muscles except those of the eyes are completely paralysed 

Q:


Layer IV and Layer V in the motor and sensory system
A:

Layer IV: afferent -> thicker in the sensory cortex, thinner in the motor cortex


Layer V: efferent -> thicker in the motor cortex, thinner in the sensory cortex

Q:

Prefrontal cortex

Premotor cortex

Motor cortex


A:

Prefrontal cortex: plans movements

Premotor cortex: organizes movement sequences (e.g. coordination of two hands)

Motor cortex: produces specific movements (e.g. gripping, other skilled movements)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:


species-typical movements
A:

controlled by the brainstem


-> innate and organised by brainstem neurons 


(experiments by Hess -> cats with electrodes in their brain)


producing complex patterns of adaptive behaviour is an important brainstem function

Q:


anterior and posterior tracts
A:

in the spinal cord,

anterior tracts are motor and

posterior tracts are sensory

Q:

cerebral palsy (CP)


A:

brainstem damage mostly acquired before or shortly after birth 

 -> voluntary movements become difficult, while many other aspects of conscious behaviour remain intact

Q:

quadriplegia

A:

paralysis and loss of sensation in the arms and legs 

(everything below the cut)

Q:

paraplegia


A:

paralysis and loss of sensation in the legs and lower body 

(both sides)

Q:

topographic organization

A:

neural spatial representation of the body or areas of the sensory world perceived by a sensory organ


-> homunculus for somatosensory and motor areas

Q:

afferent

A:

somatosensory information is afferent, it goes to the brain

Chapter 11 - Motor System

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