Neuroanatomy at Pomeranian Academy Of Medicine In Szczecin | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für neuroanatomy an der Pomeranian Academy of Medicine in Szczecin

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classification of neurons

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unipolar neurons have 1 process(axon), pseudounipolar has one process that splits in 2(dendrite and axon - sensory neuron of somatic ganglion)

bipolar has one axon and one dentrite(retina of eye)

multipolar has one axon and many dendrites(most common neuron)

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neuron - structural parts

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consists of cell body(soma) and processes --> dendrites(proximal), which are afferent processes and axon(distal) which are efferent processes

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localisation of neurons

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cell body is inside the CNS and referred to as the grey matter - they are located as nuclei or ganglia and cortex


ganglia lie outside and are located as somatic ganglia(only sensory) and autonomic ganglia of sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia

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the fibers of NS

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myelinated - white fibers

unmyelinated - grey fibres

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sensory/affaerent and motor/efferent functions

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sensory of afferent neurons give info to CNS from skin, muscles, viscera and special senses

motor of efferent neurons relay info from CNS to other parts of the body 

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PNS

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consists of 

- somatic nerves(sensory and motor) - 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves

- autonomic nerves(visceral, splanchnic) - sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

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prosencephalon - division

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telencephalon that consists of left and right cerebral hemispheres

diencephalon that consists of thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus and metathalamus

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CNS 

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is the brain and spinal cord it consists of:

-somatic part (sensory and motor function) with comatic nuclei and cortex of palium

-autonomic(visceral and splanchnic function) and has sympathetic nuclei and parasympathetic nuclei

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anteiror horn of lateral ventricle

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located in frontal lobe

is continous behind the interventricular foramen

consists of 3 walls:

roof - formed by inferior surface of corpus callosum

medial wall - built by the inferior surface of corpus callosum 

lateral wall - modeled by head of caudate nucleus

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ontogenetic division of brain

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prosencephalon(forebrain), mesencephalon(midbrain) and rhombencephalon(hindbrain)

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dura mater 

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is attached to inner periosteum of bones except where the dural venous sinuses are


it has 2 regions - the cerebral dura mater and spinal dura mater


it consists of 2 layers - the outer endostal and inner meningeal


the venous sinuses lie between outer and inner layer

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mesencephalon division

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stays the same

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Q:

classification of neurons

A:

unipolar neurons have 1 process(axon), pseudounipolar has one process that splits in 2(dendrite and axon - sensory neuron of somatic ganglion)

bipolar has one axon and one dentrite(retina of eye)

multipolar has one axon and many dendrites(most common neuron)

Q:

neuron - structural parts

A:

consists of cell body(soma) and processes --> dendrites(proximal), which are afferent processes and axon(distal) which are efferent processes

Q:

localisation of neurons

A:

cell body is inside the CNS and referred to as the grey matter - they are located as nuclei or ganglia and cortex


ganglia lie outside and are located as somatic ganglia(only sensory) and autonomic ganglia of sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia

Q:

the fibers of NS

A:

myelinated - white fibers

unmyelinated - grey fibres

Q:

sensory/affaerent and motor/efferent functions

A:

sensory of afferent neurons give info to CNS from skin, muscles, viscera and special senses

motor of efferent neurons relay info from CNS to other parts of the body 

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Q:

PNS

A:

consists of 

- somatic nerves(sensory and motor) - 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves

- autonomic nerves(visceral, splanchnic) - sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

Q:

prosencephalon - division

A:

telencephalon that consists of left and right cerebral hemispheres

diencephalon that consists of thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus and metathalamus

Q:

CNS 

A:

is the brain and spinal cord it consists of:

-somatic part (sensory and motor function) with comatic nuclei and cortex of palium

-autonomic(visceral and splanchnic function) and has sympathetic nuclei and parasympathetic nuclei

Q:

anteiror horn of lateral ventricle

A:

located in frontal lobe

is continous behind the interventricular foramen

consists of 3 walls:

roof - formed by inferior surface of corpus callosum

medial wall - built by the inferior surface of corpus callosum 

lateral wall - modeled by head of caudate nucleus

Q:

ontogenetic division of brain

A:

prosencephalon(forebrain), mesencephalon(midbrain) and rhombencephalon(hindbrain)

Q:

dura mater 

A:

is attached to inner periosteum of bones except where the dural venous sinuses are


it has 2 regions - the cerebral dura mater and spinal dura mater


it consists of 2 layers - the outer endostal and inner meningeal


the venous sinuses lie between outer and inner layer

Q:

mesencephalon division

A:

stays the same

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