Advanced FLT Linguistics: Brain Matters In Language Learning at Pädagogische Hochschule Weingarten | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Advanced FLT Linguistics: Brain Matters in Language Learning an der Pädagogische Hochschule Weingarten

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen Advanced FLT Linguistics: Brain Matters in Language Learning Kurs an der Pädagogische Hochschule Weingarten zu.

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What is the symbolic function?

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- symbols are used to encode and externalize thoughts

- symbols consist of form (spoken, written, signed) and meaning with which the forms are conventionally paried - a symbolic assembl = a form-meaning pairing

- meaning is linked to a particular mental representation (concept) => concepts derive from percept (wahrnehmungsbild)

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What is the interactive function of language?

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- process of transmission that involve construction of simulations

- messages can perfprm various interaction and social functions (e.g. changing the way the world is or making things happen)

=> language can serve as a speec act that forever alters an aspect of our reality

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How is language organized?

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Language is a system that can be interpreted literal or idimatic, depending on the context an utterance occurs

- symbolic assembley (a conventional unit or an aspect of language that speakers recognize and agree upon what it means and how it is used, example: He kicked the bucket/He kicked the mop)

- systematic structure of thought (Linguistic expressions are evidence that the structure of our conceptual systems is reflected in the patterns of language -> our minds are constructed and organized by sociocultural experience and language)

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Main avenues of cognitive linguistics?

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- uncover systems behin language to describe these systems and to model them

- explain human cognition

- how language is represented in mind

- investigative language intuitions about grammaticality and meaning

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What are cognitive categories?

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We organize items in our environment by use of cognitive categories and attribtues

A cognitive category is a classification system for organizing items (tangible and non-tangible)

-> categorization is a mental process of classification => objects are structured by a system of reference points for orientation

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What are attributes?

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- essential features of an object to belong to a specific category 

Example: We need to be able to identify birds as objects that can fly, there are various kinds of birds (robin, eagle, owl, penguin etc.) -> attributes are the characteristics we use to identify the difference between a robin, a sparrow and an ostrich

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What is categorization?

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- the mental process of classification

- products are cognitive categories or concepts

- requires use of words and language

- makes use of mental concepts

- stored in our mind as mental lexicon

- objects are structured by a system of reference points for orientation

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What are focal colours and what do they prove?

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They are the basic colours children learn early in life, non-focal colours are more difficult to learn

--> in Japan there is no blue-green distinction, in Germany those colours are focal colours -> categorization has a cultural connotation

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What are prototypes?

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The best example of an object

Prototypes function as a reference point in a category

-> serves as "anchor" used for comparison

Prototypes are culturally learned


Example: Prototypical tree in scandinacian countries would be a conifer, in Germany it is normally a maple or an apple tree or another tree with leaves and in countries with higher temperatures it possibly is a palm tree

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What are fuzzy boundaries?

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The boundaries of categories are often not clear cut

-> so the classification is more difficult and not clear

Example: A sparrow is a bird (true)

A chick is a bird (less true than the sparrow)

A penguin is a bird (less true than the chick)

A bat is a bird (far away from being true)

A cow is a bird (absolutely wrong)


Fuzziness is because of the obvious attributes (can fly, has feathers) -> this makes the penguin less a bird and the bat be more a bird

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What is family resemblance?

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The problem with the fuzzy boundaries could be solved through family resemblance

Those items in a category which share few or no attributes with the others, because of the fuzzy boundaries belong to a category because of family resemblance -> not every member needs to have the obvious attribtues

There are overlappings and interferences within the attributes of a category: An item can belong to a category, although it is not common to all category members or does not have features according to the classical view (although the bat can fly and has no legs it is a member of the category of mammalians, because it shares the attribute of nursing her babies)

--> classical or central members of a category have a higher grade of family resemblance because they share many central or pithy attributes

--> it's not so much about what belongs to which category but more about how near sth is to the prototype

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What is the main function of language?

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Allows quick and effective expression in almost every situation and provides a well-developed means of encoding and transmitting complex and subtle ideas

Symbolic and interactive function


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  • 16127 Karteikarten
  • 388 Studierende
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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Advanced FLT Linguistics: Brain Matters in Language Learning Kurs an der Pädagogische Hochschule Weingarten - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What is the symbolic function?

A:

- symbols are used to encode and externalize thoughts

- symbols consist of form (spoken, written, signed) and meaning with which the forms are conventionally paried - a symbolic assembl = a form-meaning pairing

- meaning is linked to a particular mental representation (concept) => concepts derive from percept (wahrnehmungsbild)

Q:

What is the interactive function of language?

A:

- process of transmission that involve construction of simulations

- messages can perfprm various interaction and social functions (e.g. changing the way the world is or making things happen)

=> language can serve as a speec act that forever alters an aspect of our reality

Q:

How is language organized?

A:

Language is a system that can be interpreted literal or idimatic, depending on the context an utterance occurs

- symbolic assembley (a conventional unit or an aspect of language that speakers recognize and agree upon what it means and how it is used, example: He kicked the bucket/He kicked the mop)

- systematic structure of thought (Linguistic expressions are evidence that the structure of our conceptual systems is reflected in the patterns of language -> our minds are constructed and organized by sociocultural experience and language)

Q:

Main avenues of cognitive linguistics?

A:

- uncover systems behin language to describe these systems and to model them

- explain human cognition

- how language is represented in mind

- investigative language intuitions about grammaticality and meaning

Q:

What are cognitive categories?

A:

We organize items in our environment by use of cognitive categories and attribtues

A cognitive category is a classification system for organizing items (tangible and non-tangible)

-> categorization is a mental process of classification => objects are structured by a system of reference points for orientation

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are attributes?

A:

- essential features of an object to belong to a specific category 

Example: We need to be able to identify birds as objects that can fly, there are various kinds of birds (robin, eagle, owl, penguin etc.) -> attributes are the characteristics we use to identify the difference between a robin, a sparrow and an ostrich

Q:

What is categorization?

A:

- the mental process of classification

- products are cognitive categories or concepts

- requires use of words and language

- makes use of mental concepts

- stored in our mind as mental lexicon

- objects are structured by a system of reference points for orientation

Q:

What are focal colours and what do they prove?

A:

They are the basic colours children learn early in life, non-focal colours are more difficult to learn

--> in Japan there is no blue-green distinction, in Germany those colours are focal colours -> categorization has a cultural connotation

Q:

What are prototypes?

A:

The best example of an object

Prototypes function as a reference point in a category

-> serves as "anchor" used for comparison

Prototypes are culturally learned


Example: Prototypical tree in scandinacian countries would be a conifer, in Germany it is normally a maple or an apple tree or another tree with leaves and in countries with higher temperatures it possibly is a palm tree

Q:

What are fuzzy boundaries?

A:

The boundaries of categories are often not clear cut

-> so the classification is more difficult and not clear

Example: A sparrow is a bird (true)

A chick is a bird (less true than the sparrow)

A penguin is a bird (less true than the chick)

A bat is a bird (far away from being true)

A cow is a bird (absolutely wrong)


Fuzziness is because of the obvious attributes (can fly, has feathers) -> this makes the penguin less a bird and the bat be more a bird

Q:

What is family resemblance?

A:

The problem with the fuzzy boundaries could be solved through family resemblance

Those items in a category which share few or no attributes with the others, because of the fuzzy boundaries belong to a category because of family resemblance -> not every member needs to have the obvious attribtues

There are overlappings and interferences within the attributes of a category: An item can belong to a category, although it is not common to all category members or does not have features according to the classical view (although the bat can fly and has no legs it is a member of the category of mammalians, because it shares the attribute of nursing her babies)

--> classical or central members of a category have a higher grade of family resemblance because they share many central or pithy attributes

--> it's not so much about what belongs to which category but more about how near sth is to the prototype

Q:

What is the main function of language?

A:

Allows quick and effective expression in almost every situation and provides a well-developed means of encoding and transmitting complex and subtle ideas

Symbolic and interactive function


Advanced FLT Linguistics: Brain Matters in Language Learning

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