Introduction To Linguistics at Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Introduction to Linguistics an der Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd

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Derivational Affixation

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- the creation of a new word by adding a derivational affix existing word

- derivational suffixation often results in a new word class

N -> Adj (part-ial, fashion-able)

N -> V (class-ify, woman-ise)

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Morphology Definition

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Morphology is concerned with the internal structure of words and the system of categories and rules involved in word formation

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Coinage

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- invention of totally new terms

- Eponyms: new words based on the name of a person or a place

ex. aspirin, jeans, zipper, sanwhich, kleenex

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Acronyms

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- new words formed from the initial letters of a set of other words

ex. CD - compact disk

VCR - video cassette recorder

radar - radio detecting and ranging

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Multiple Processes

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- more than one process at work in the creation of a particular word

1. deli - delicatessen (German)-> deli (borrowing and clipping)

2.to lase - laser (acronym) -> to lase (acronym and backformation)

3. to snowball - snowball (snow+ball) (compounding and conversation)

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voiceless vs voiced

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voiceless: vocal cords are pulled apart, air can pass through relatively freely, no vibration: ex: [f] in fly or, [s] in sing or the glottal sound, [h] in house


voiced: vocal cords are close together, but not tightly closed, air passes between them, vibration: ex: [z] in zoo, [m] in mint, [w] in watch, [v] in voice

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vowels vs consonants

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- vowels: little obstruction, free flow of air


- consonants: narrow or complete closure in the vocal tract

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Phonology

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the scientific study of the function and organisation of sound segments of a language

- What sounds does/doesnt a language have?

- How can these sounds be combindes/used?

- How do these sounds alter when they are pronounced in certain contexts?

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Manner of articulation (in English): Stop or Plosives

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- stopping the air stream (very briefly) then letting it go abruptly


/p/ /b/ (bilabial)

/t/ /d/ (alveolar)

/k/ /g/ (velar)

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Minimal Pair Test

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Aim: Establishment of the phoneme status of two sounds

Procedure: find two word which differ in exactly one sound and otherwise have an identical sequence (ex. shine-sign)

- difference in meaning

- it is contrastive - sounds are phonemes

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Manner of articulation (in English): Nasal Stops (Nasals)

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- nasals: airstream flows through the nasal cavitiy


- raised velum = oral sound

- lowered velum = nasal sound


- in English all nasal are stops 

/m/ (bilabial)

/n/ (alveolar)

/n(g) (velar)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Morphemes - Allomorphs

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Examples:

cleaned -> clean + -ed allomorph

gave -> give + vowel change allomorph

put -> put + zero change allomorph

went -> go + suppletion allomorph

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Q:

Derivational Affixation

A:

- the creation of a new word by adding a derivational affix existing word

- derivational suffixation often results in a new word class

N -> Adj (part-ial, fashion-able)

N -> V (class-ify, woman-ise)

Q:

Morphology Definition

A:

Morphology is concerned with the internal structure of words and the system of categories and rules involved in word formation

Q:

Coinage

A:

- invention of totally new terms

- Eponyms: new words based on the name of a person or a place

ex. aspirin, jeans, zipper, sanwhich, kleenex

Q:

Acronyms

A:

- new words formed from the initial letters of a set of other words

ex. CD - compact disk

VCR - video cassette recorder

radar - radio detecting and ranging

Q:

Multiple Processes

A:

- more than one process at work in the creation of a particular word

1. deli - delicatessen (German)-> deli (borrowing and clipping)

2.to lase - laser (acronym) -> to lase (acronym and backformation)

3. to snowball - snowball (snow+ball) (compounding and conversation)

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Q:

voiceless vs voiced

A:

voiceless: vocal cords are pulled apart, air can pass through relatively freely, no vibration: ex: [f] in fly or, [s] in sing or the glottal sound, [h] in house


voiced: vocal cords are close together, but not tightly closed, air passes between them, vibration: ex: [z] in zoo, [m] in mint, [w] in watch, [v] in voice

Q:

vowels vs consonants

A:

- vowels: little obstruction, free flow of air


- consonants: narrow or complete closure in the vocal tract

Q:

Phonology

A:

the scientific study of the function and organisation of sound segments of a language

- What sounds does/doesnt a language have?

- How can these sounds be combindes/used?

- How do these sounds alter when they are pronounced in certain contexts?

Q:

Manner of articulation (in English): Stop or Plosives

A:

- stopping the air stream (very briefly) then letting it go abruptly


/p/ /b/ (bilabial)

/t/ /d/ (alveolar)

/k/ /g/ (velar)

Q:

Minimal Pair Test

A:

Aim: Establishment of the phoneme status of two sounds

Procedure: find two word which differ in exactly one sound and otherwise have an identical sequence (ex. shine-sign)

- difference in meaning

- it is contrastive - sounds are phonemes

Q:

Manner of articulation (in English): Nasal Stops (Nasals)

A:

- nasals: airstream flows through the nasal cavitiy


- raised velum = oral sound

- lowered velum = nasal sound


- in English all nasal are stops 

/m/ (bilabial)

/n/ (alveolar)

/n(g) (velar)

Q:

Morphemes - Allomorphs

A:

Examples:

cleaned -> clean + -ed allomorph

gave -> give + vowel change allomorph

put -> put + zero change allomorph

went -> go + suppletion allomorph

Introduction to Linguistics

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