Introduction to Linguistics at Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

Classification of consonantal sounds of English

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

voiceless vs voiced

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

Articulation

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

Manner of articulation (in English): Stop or Plosives

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

Manner of articulation (in English): Nasal Stops (Nasals)

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

Manner of articulation (in English): Glides

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

Manner of articulation (in English): Liquids

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

Phonology

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

Phoneme - Phone - Allophone

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

Minimal Pair Test

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Phonemic Analysis

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vowels vs consonants

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Schwäbisch Gmünd on StudySmarter:

Introduction to Linguistics

Classification of consonantal sounds of English

- consonantal sounds are describes by a three-term-label


1. voice: Is the sound voice or voiceless?

2. place: Where does the obstruction of the airstream occur?

3. manner: How or to which degree is the airflow obstructed?

Introduction to Linguistics

voiceless vs voiced

voiceless: vocal cords are pulled apart, air can pass through relatively freely, no vibration: ex: [f] in fly or, [s] in sing or the glottal sound, [h] in house


voiced: vocal cords are close together, but not tightly closed, air passes between them, vibration: ex: [z] in zoo, [m] in mint, [w] in watch, [v] in voice

Introduction to Linguistics

Articulation

- modification of the airstream by the articulators


- active articulator: tongue and lips


- passive articulator: teeth, alveolar ridge, hard and soft palate


-> obstruction of the air stream at different places and to varying degrees


!!! bilabil, labiodental, dental, alveolar, post-alveolar/palatal and velar !!!

Introduction to Linguistics

Manner of articulation (in English): Stop or Plosives

- stopping the air stream (very briefly) then letting it go abruptly


/p/ /b/ (bilabial)

/t/ /d/ (alveolar)

/k/ /g/ (velar)

Introduction to Linguistics

Manner of articulation (in English): Nasal Stops (Nasals)

- nasals: airstream flows through the nasal cavitiy


- raised velum = oral sound

- lowered velum = nasal sound


- in English all nasal are stops 

/m/ (bilabial)

/n/ (alveolar)

/n(g) (velar)

Introduction to Linguistics

Manner of articulation (in English): Glides

- relatively little obstruction of air in the oral cavity strongly influenced by following vowel sound


- all glides are voiced


/j/, /w/ = semi-vowels/glides/approximents

Introduction to Linguistics

Manner of articulation (in English): Liquids

- a consonant produced by allowing the airstream to flow around the sides of the tongue


/l/ (voiced, alveolar) (lateral liquid)

/r/ (voiced, alveolar)

Introduction to Linguistics

Phonology

the scientific study of the function and organisation of sound segments of a language

- What sounds does/doesnt a language have?

- How can these sounds be combindes/used?

- How do these sounds alter when they are pronounced in certain contexts?

Introduction to Linguistics

Phoneme - Phone - Allophone

Phoneme: smallest unit of speech sound distinguisching meaning, abstract, idealised concept

Phone: realization of a phoneme

Allophones: the different realization of a phoneme (different ways to pronounce [t])

Introduction to Linguistics

Minimal Pair Test

Aim: Establishment of the phoneme status of two sounds

Procedure: find two word which differ in exactly one sound and otherwise have an identical sequence (ex. shine-sign)

- difference in meaning

- it is contrastive - sounds are phonemes

Introduction to Linguistics

Phonemic Analysis

A phonemic analysis of a language consists of three parts:

a. the phonemic system

b. phonotactics

c. co-articulation effects

Introduction to Linguistics

vowels vs consonants

- vowels: little obstruction, free flow of air


- consonants: narrow or complete closure in the vocal tract

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