Language Skills 1 at Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg

Flashcards and summaries for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg

Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

Simple present

Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

Present progressive

Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

time clauses and future conditions in the present

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Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

present perfect

Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

o Continuative perfect

o perfect of experience

Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

o resultative perfect

Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

simple past

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Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

past progressive

Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

time clauses and future conditions in the past

Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

past perfect

Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

will future

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Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

going to future

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Exemplary flashcards for Language Skills 1 at the Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg on StudySmarter:

Language Skills 1

Simple present

• refers to basic truths or facts that are true now (in the present)

o for things which always happen/facts
o for things which are generally valid
o for permanent habits
o for events in a sequence
o for sports commentaries or story telling
o for future e vents involve inanimate subjects and that have been arranged
(e.g. timetables)

Language Skills 1

Present progressive

• refers to actions that are in progress now (Verlaufsform)
o for actions which are thought of as being in progress now
o for temporary habits
o for future events which have been arranged and involve animate subjects
(people)

Language Skills 1

time clauses and future conditions in the present

• time clause refers to the future and uses a conjunction like when, before, not until,
as soon as etc.
o time clause + present simple , will future
▪ subordinate clause , main clause
• future conditions use the conjunctions if and unless
• also called the ´first conditional´ and refers to things which are possible or likely to
happen
o if/unless + present simple , will future

Language Skills 1

present perfect

• refers to sth that started in the past and continues up-to-now and refers to a non-
specific time in the past (with an effect on the present)
• focus on the present
• ´the fact´ that an event or action has happened
• ´for´ and ´since´ indicate a time-span
for + time span
since followed by point in time/ + time span (perfect form)
verb in past/ adverb of past main clause

Language Skills 1

o Continuative perfect

o perfect of experience

▪ sth began in the past and has been continuing ´up-to-now´

▪ sth has happened once, twice, a number of times or never
▪ indefinite time span – throughout your whole life
▪ definite time span – within the mentioned time-span up-to-now

Language Skills 1

o resultative perfect

▪ not ´when´ the event happened, only that it happened at a non-
specific time in the past but present focus
▪ you can see the results, also to give news, ´yet´, ´already´
▪ primary resultative perfect -> simple aspect → logical conclusion
- goal has been reached
▪ secondary resultative perfect -> progressive aspect → side effect
-
interested in fact, present evidence

Language Skills 1

simple past

• refers to basic truths or facts that were true in the past or the events that started and
finished in the past
o for geneal truths which were valid at some point in the past but which are no
longer valid
o for permanent habits - ´used to´
o for events in a sequence
o for telling stories (along with the past continuous for framework situations)
o for arranged events in the future when regarded from a point of time in the
past
o with time clauses and second conditionals
• ´once´ - I) one time II) no longer III) once upon a time, long ago

Language Skills 1

past progressive

• refers to actions that were in progress
o for actual progressives
o for general progressives
o for temporary habits
o for framework situations

Language Skills 1

time clauses and future conditions in the past

• second conditional sentences can be used to refer to the future
• makes the event seem less likely than if we used a first conditional sentence
• is used to talk about things which might happen but are unlikely, for imaginary or
hypothetical situations
• sentence could refer to the past (e.g. as a reminder of what was said)

Language Skills 1

past perfect

• had + past participle
• present perfect-in-the-past
o relates to a point of time in the past
o continuative: up-to-then
o resultative: refers to results or consequences present at a past time
• past tense-in-the-past
o look further back to a time before that point: before then

Language Skills 1

will future

• prediction: it is usual to add verbs like `I expect` , `I think`
• intentions, wishes, requests, offers: spontaneous decision

Language Skills 1

going to future

• prediction: stronger and more certain than will future
• about to happen immediately
• premeditated intentions

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language & Linguistics

Language Awareness 1

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