Medical Biology at Odessa State Medical University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Medical biology an der Odessa State Medical University

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cell to cell commun
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Signal mole secreted by sig cells to coordinate cell activ
Eg of sig mole , neurotransmitter, released into left synaptic cleft , endocrine hormones , carried by blood , paradise hormones or autocrine hormones .
Lipid sol sig mole pene the plasma mem and bind to Receptor within the cytoplasm or inside the nucleus activating intracell messages   eg hormones influe genes transcript. 

Hydrophilic sig molenbind to act cell surface recep serotonin,  thyroid stim and insulin 
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Molecule level 
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Carbohydrates simple sugars polysaccharides,  serves as storage forms of sugar, structural components of cells and serve as markers.
Lipids principal components of cell membrane and act as energy storage and signal molecules.
Proteins polymers of 20 diff amino acids three 3d structure of amino acid sequence. 
Nucleic acid dna and rna principal info molecules polymers of purine and pyramidine
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Lipid bilayer is freely peamable to what type of molecules
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small non polar molecules and soluble lipids 
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Molecular structure 
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The bilayer is composed of phospholipids,  glycolipid , cholesterol.
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transcription making an rna copy of a dna sequence 
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Transcription :making an RNA copy of a DNA sequence .Gene-a specific sequence  of nucleotides in DNA that is located on a chromosome and that is the functional  unit of inheritance controlling the transmission  and expression  of one or more traits although humans contain  a thousand  times more DNA than bacteria  ,the best  estimates are that humans have only about 20 times more genes than do the bacteria.  This means that the vast majority  of eukaryotic DNA is apparently  nonfunctional  .Genes that are expressed  usually have introns that interrupt the coding sequence  . A typical  eukaryotic  gene therefore consists of a set of sequence that appear  in mature mRNA (called exons) interrupted  by introns . Exon -the coding  part of gene exon contains the code for producing protein and is copied  and spliced together with other such sequences to form messenger  RNA (mRNA) . Exons are separated  by introns . Exons are not  spliced out from the transcribed RNA and are retained  in the final messenger RNA (mRNA)molecule .
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types of non cellular forms 
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virus: depend on the host toxic they infect and thrive on cellular forms and consist of DNA or rna within capsid present,  head , tail , capsid
Types DNA viruses small px herpes b etc
Type if RNA virus hiv here c , influenza

Prions are composed of protein only ( no dna rna or nucluec acid) able to reproduce in their own and cause infections transmission host to host and species and infect brain tissue

Viroids opposite if prion 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the interactions between oxygen and sodium and hydrogen and chlorine 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Ion dipole interaction
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is plasmolysis
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
hypertonic cause to shrink
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hypotonic 
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too watery or more solvent
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what is meant by biosphere 
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the sum of all living things in conjunction with their environment 
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what is community or biogeocenosis
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a set of population that inhabits an area divided by aquatic and terrestrial,  repaint on the ecosystem of that area and its food sources.
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what are tissues 
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Tissues are a group of cells that are formed to have a similar structure and they function as a unit.
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Q:
cell to cell commun
A:
Signal mole secreted by sig cells to coordinate cell activ
Eg of sig mole , neurotransmitter, released into left synaptic cleft , endocrine hormones , carried by blood , paradise hormones or autocrine hormones .
Lipid sol sig mole pene the plasma mem and bind to Receptor within the cytoplasm or inside the nucleus activating intracell messages   eg hormones influe genes transcript. 

Hydrophilic sig molenbind to act cell surface recep serotonin,  thyroid stim and insulin 
Q:
Molecule level 
A:
Carbohydrates simple sugars polysaccharides,  serves as storage forms of sugar, structural components of cells and serve as markers.
Lipids principal components of cell membrane and act as energy storage and signal molecules.
Proteins polymers of 20 diff amino acids three 3d structure of amino acid sequence. 
Nucleic acid dna and rna principal info molecules polymers of purine and pyramidine
Q:
Lipid bilayer is freely peamable to what type of molecules
A:
small non polar molecules and soluble lipids 
Q:
Molecular structure 
A:
The bilayer is composed of phospholipids,  glycolipid , cholesterol.
Q:
transcription making an rna copy of a dna sequence 
A:
Transcription :making an RNA copy of a DNA sequence .Gene-a specific sequence  of nucleotides in DNA that is located on a chromosome and that is the functional  unit of inheritance controlling the transmission  and expression  of one or more traits although humans contain  a thousand  times more DNA than bacteria  ,the best  estimates are that humans have only about 20 times more genes than do the bacteria.  This means that the vast majority  of eukaryotic DNA is apparently  nonfunctional  .Genes that are expressed  usually have introns that interrupt the coding sequence  . A typical  eukaryotic  gene therefore consists of a set of sequence that appear  in mature mRNA (called exons) interrupted  by introns . Exon -the coding  part of gene exon contains the code for producing protein and is copied  and spliced together with other such sequences to form messenger  RNA (mRNA) . Exons are separated  by introns . Exons are not  spliced out from the transcribed RNA and are retained  in the final messenger RNA (mRNA)molecule .
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Q:
types of non cellular forms 
A:
virus: depend on the host toxic they infect and thrive on cellular forms and consist of DNA or rna within capsid present,  head , tail , capsid
Types DNA viruses small px herpes b etc
Type if RNA virus hiv here c , influenza

Prions are composed of protein only ( no dna rna or nucluec acid) able to reproduce in their own and cause infections transmission host to host and species and infect brain tissue

Viroids opposite if prion 
Q:
What are the interactions between oxygen and sodium and hydrogen and chlorine 
A:
Ion dipole interaction
Q:
What is plasmolysis
A:
hypertonic cause to shrink
Q:
hypotonic 
A:
too watery or more solvent
Q:
what is meant by biosphere 
A:
the sum of all living things in conjunction with their environment 
Q:
what is community or biogeocenosis
A:
a set of population that inhabits an area divided by aquatic and terrestrial,  repaint on the ecosystem of that area and its food sources.
Q:
what are tissues 
A:
Tissues are a group of cells that are formed to have a similar structure and they function as a unit.
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