Psychology at Nottingham Trent University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Psychology an der Nottingham Trent University

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Who proposed the working memory model?
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Baddeley and Hitch
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Central executive 
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-supervisory role
-monitors incoming data, focuses and divides our limited attention and allocates slave systems to tasks
-limited processing capacity and doesn’t store information 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Research on capacity:
Evaluation
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
(+) Valid study
-Jacobs’ study has been replicated
-although Jacobs’ study was old and lacked adequate controls, Jacobs’ findings have been confirmed by other better controlled studies
-Jacobs’ study is a valid test of digit span in STM.
(-) Not as many chunks:
-Miller may have overestimated STM capacity
-Cowan reviewed other research and concluded that the capacity of STM is only about 4+/-1 chunks
-the lower end of Miller’s estimate (5) is more appropriate than seven items
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is meant by a dispositional explanation?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
An explanation of behaviour that highlights the importance of the individual’s personality.
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Miller’s research on capacity of STM
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
-made observations of everyday practice and noted that things come in sevens: days of the week, deadly sins, etc.
-he thought that the capacity of STM was about 7+/-2 items.
-he also noted that people can recall five words as easily as they can recall five letters: chunking - grouping sets of digits/letters into units/chunks 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Authoritarian personality:
Evaluation
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(+) Research support
Milgram and Elms interviewed pps who had participated in the original obedience studies and were fully obedient. They all completed the F scale and the 20 obedient pps scored significantly higher on the F scale than the 20 disobedient pps. These findings support Adorno et Al’s view that obedient people show similar characteristics to those with an authoritarian personality.
Counterpoint - when the researchers analysed the individual subscales of the F scales, they found that the obedient pps had characteristics which were unusual for authoritarians, such as not glorifying their father and nor experiencing extreme punishment during childhood. This means that the link between obedience and authoritarianism is complex, and authoritarianism is unlikely to be a good predictor of obedience.
(-) Limited explanation
Cannot explain obedient behaviour in the majority of a country’s population. In pre war Germany, millions of individuals displayed obedient, racist and anti-Semitic behaviour, however would have all had different personalities, it’s unlikely that they would have all possessed an authoritarian personality. Adorno’s theory is limited as an alternate explanation, such as identifying with the anti Semitic nazi state is more realistic.
(-) Political bias
The F scale only measures the tendency towards an extreme form of right wing ideology. Christie and Jahoda argued that the F scale is a politically biased interpretation of Authoritarian personality. Extreme right wing and left wing ideologies have a lot in common, both emphasise the importance of complete obedience to political authority, meaning Adorno’s theory is not a comprehensive definition across the whole political spectrum.
(-) Flawed evidence 
Greenstein argues the F scale is a completely flawed scale. It’s possible to get a high score by simply selecting ‘agree‘ answers, meaning anyone with this response bias is assessed as having an authoritarian personality. The F scale may not be as useful as we initially thought. 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Semantic memory
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-shared knowledge of the world like an encyclopaedia or dictionary
-eg, meanings of words
-not time stamped
-less personal and more about facts we share
-less vulnerable to distortion/forgetting than episodic memory
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Asch baseline APFC
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A - to assess to what extent people will conform to the opinion of others, even in a situation where the answer is certain.
P - Each participant was put in a group with confederates (there was only one genuine participant per group). The participants were shown a line, then three other lines, and they had to say which one was the same length as the initial line. All the confederates gave the same incorrect answer each time.
F- the genuine participants agreed with the confederates’ answers 36.8% of the time, but 25% of the participants never gave a wrong answer. 
C - the participants conformed due to normative social influence, as they wanted to be accepted by the group, so changed their answers to go along with the majority.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Locus of control as a reason to resist social influence:
Evaluation
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
(+) Research support
-Holland repeated Milgram’s baseline study and measured whether participants had internal or external LOCs.
-37% of internals didn’t continue to the highest shock level (they showed some resistance) whereas only 23% of externals didn’t continue.
-resistance is related to LOC, increasing the validity of LOC as an explanation of disobedience 
Counterpoint: Rotter pointed out that this is not necessarily the most important factor in determining whether or not someone will resist social influence. It depends on the situation. It can only be a partial explanation, relevant to some situations but not others.
(-) Conflicting evidence:
-Twenge et al analysed data from American locus of control studies conducted over a 40 year period.
-the data showed that over time, people become more resistant to social influence but also more external 
-however, if LOC was related to resistance to social influence, we’d expect people to become more internal.
-locus of control isn’t a valid explanation of how people resist social influence. 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is meant by identification as a type of conformity?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When an individual conforms to the behaviour/opinions of a group because there’s something about the group that they value. They identify with the group and want to be part of it. The individual may publicly change opinions and behaviour to be accepted by the group, even if they don’t privately agree with everything the group stands for.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What were Milgram’s findings regarding uniform, and the explanation for this?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Experimenter wore grey lab coat - 65%
Member of public in everyday clothes - 20%
Explanation - uniforms encourage obedience because they’re widely recognised symbols of authority. They would expect obedience because their authority is legitimate. Someone without uniform has less right to expect obedience.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Who was Adolf Eichmann and what did he lead Milgram to propose?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
He was in charge of Nazi death camps, and his defence was that he was only obeying orders. This lead Milgram to propose that obedience to destructive authority occurs because the individual doesn’t take responsibility, they become an ’agent’ acting for someone else. This agent feels high anxiety but powerless to disobey. 
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Q:
Who proposed the working memory model?
A:
Baddeley and Hitch
Q:
Central executive 
A:
-supervisory role
-monitors incoming data, focuses and divides our limited attention and allocates slave systems to tasks
-limited processing capacity and doesn’t store information 
Q:
Research on capacity:
Evaluation
A:
(+) Valid study
-Jacobs’ study has been replicated
-although Jacobs’ study was old and lacked adequate controls, Jacobs’ findings have been confirmed by other better controlled studies
-Jacobs’ study is a valid test of digit span in STM.
(-) Not as many chunks:
-Miller may have overestimated STM capacity
-Cowan reviewed other research and concluded that the capacity of STM is only about 4+/-1 chunks
-the lower end of Miller’s estimate (5) is more appropriate than seven items
Q:
What is meant by a dispositional explanation?
A:
An explanation of behaviour that highlights the importance of the individual’s personality.
Q:
Miller’s research on capacity of STM
A:
-made observations of everyday practice and noted that things come in sevens: days of the week, deadly sins, etc.
-he thought that the capacity of STM was about 7+/-2 items.
-he also noted that people can recall five words as easily as they can recall five letters: chunking - grouping sets of digits/letters into units/chunks 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Authoritarian personality:
Evaluation
A:
(+) Research support
Milgram and Elms interviewed pps who had participated in the original obedience studies and were fully obedient. They all completed the F scale and the 20 obedient pps scored significantly higher on the F scale than the 20 disobedient pps. These findings support Adorno et Al’s view that obedient people show similar characteristics to those with an authoritarian personality.
Counterpoint - when the researchers analysed the individual subscales of the F scales, they found that the obedient pps had characteristics which were unusual for authoritarians, such as not glorifying their father and nor experiencing extreme punishment during childhood. This means that the link between obedience and authoritarianism is complex, and authoritarianism is unlikely to be a good predictor of obedience.
(-) Limited explanation
Cannot explain obedient behaviour in the majority of a country’s population. In pre war Germany, millions of individuals displayed obedient, racist and anti-Semitic behaviour, however would have all had different personalities, it’s unlikely that they would have all possessed an authoritarian personality. Adorno’s theory is limited as an alternate explanation, such as identifying with the anti Semitic nazi state is more realistic.
(-) Political bias
The F scale only measures the tendency towards an extreme form of right wing ideology. Christie and Jahoda argued that the F scale is a politically biased interpretation of Authoritarian personality. Extreme right wing and left wing ideologies have a lot in common, both emphasise the importance of complete obedience to political authority, meaning Adorno’s theory is not a comprehensive definition across the whole political spectrum.
(-) Flawed evidence 
Greenstein argues the F scale is a completely flawed scale. It’s possible to get a high score by simply selecting ‘agree‘ answers, meaning anyone with this response bias is assessed as having an authoritarian personality. The F scale may not be as useful as we initially thought. 
Q:
Semantic memory
A:
-shared knowledge of the world like an encyclopaedia or dictionary
-eg, meanings of words
-not time stamped
-less personal and more about facts we share
-less vulnerable to distortion/forgetting than episodic memory
Q:
Asch baseline APFC
A:
A - to assess to what extent people will conform to the opinion of others, even in a situation where the answer is certain.
P - Each participant was put in a group with confederates (there was only one genuine participant per group). The participants were shown a line, then three other lines, and they had to say which one was the same length as the initial line. All the confederates gave the same incorrect answer each time.
F- the genuine participants agreed with the confederates’ answers 36.8% of the time, but 25% of the participants never gave a wrong answer. 
C - the participants conformed due to normative social influence, as they wanted to be accepted by the group, so changed their answers to go along with the majority.
Q:
Locus of control as a reason to resist social influence:
Evaluation
A:
(+) Research support
-Holland repeated Milgram’s baseline study and measured whether participants had internal or external LOCs.
-37% of internals didn’t continue to the highest shock level (they showed some resistance) whereas only 23% of externals didn’t continue.
-resistance is related to LOC, increasing the validity of LOC as an explanation of disobedience 
Counterpoint: Rotter pointed out that this is not necessarily the most important factor in determining whether or not someone will resist social influence. It depends on the situation. It can only be a partial explanation, relevant to some situations but not others.
(-) Conflicting evidence:
-Twenge et al analysed data from American locus of control studies conducted over a 40 year period.
-the data showed that over time, people become more resistant to social influence but also more external 
-however, if LOC was related to resistance to social influence, we’d expect people to become more internal.
-locus of control isn’t a valid explanation of how people resist social influence. 
Q:
What is meant by identification as a type of conformity?
A:
When an individual conforms to the behaviour/opinions of a group because there’s something about the group that they value. They identify with the group and want to be part of it. The individual may publicly change opinions and behaviour to be accepted by the group, even if they don’t privately agree with everything the group stands for.
Q:
What were Milgram’s findings regarding uniform, and the explanation for this?
A:
Experimenter wore grey lab coat - 65%
Member of public in everyday clothes - 20%
Explanation - uniforms encourage obedience because they’re widely recognised symbols of authority. They would expect obedience because their authority is legitimate. Someone without uniform has less right to expect obedience.
Q:
Who was Adolf Eichmann and what did he lead Milgram to propose?
A:
He was in charge of Nazi death camps, and his defence was that he was only obeying orders. This lead Milgram to propose that obedience to destructive authority occurs because the individual doesn’t take responsibility, they become an ’agent’ acting for someone else. This agent feels high anxiety but powerless to disobey. 
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