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Introduction to Statistics

Types of statistics

- Deductive or descriptive statistics
- Inductive or inferential statistics

Introduction to Statistics

Methodologies of statistics

- Definition of research or study program problem
- Take stock of available research output
- Collection of new data
- Analysis of the data so collected
- Presentation of the result from the analysis
- Interpretation of your results and making reference when needed

Introduction to Statistics

Methods of data presentation

- Textual method of data presentation
- Tabular method of data presentation
- Semi-tabular method of data presentation
- Graphical/chart method of data presentation

Introduction to Statistics

Method of data collection

- Personal interview
- Group discussions or interviews
- Experiment
- Direct observation
- Use of questionnaire
- Use of telephone

Introduction to Statistics

Sources of primary data

- Sales statistics
- Supply statistics
- Production statistics
- Financial (cost) statistics
- Personnel statistics

Introduction to Statistics

Sources of secondary data

Research agencies: like NBS, CBN, world bank, MAN

Introduction to Statistics

Common concepts and mathematical languages in statistics

- Variable
- Constant
- Data
- Population or universe
- Parameter
- Buyers

Introduction to Statistics

Variable language types

- Discreet variable
- Continuous variable

Introduction to Statistics

Discreet variable

Integral, whole number. It doesn't change

Introduction to Statistics

Continuous variable

These are real numbers, rational numbers and irrational numbers. These ones change

Introduction to Statistics

Constant language

An event or occurrence which does not change over a given period of time. It assumes the same value over a range of observations

Introduction to Statistics

Data language

These are numbers or measurements of variables which are collected as a result of observation

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