Speech Instrumentation at New York University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für speech instrumentation an der New York University

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what are properties we use to characterize sound waves:

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◦ Frequency and period

◦ Amplitude

◦ Phase

◦ Periodic versus aperiodic

◦ Simple versus complex

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In the segmentation problem, formant transition is part of the vowel but ____

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reflects properties of preceding or following consonant.

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Suprasegmentals are properties of speech that typically span more than one speech sound or segment. What are the three primary suprasegmental features of speech?

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The three suprasegmental features of speech are intonation, duration, and stress.

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Another component of the invariance problem is 

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speaker differences

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What is the distinctive formant transition pattern associated with the velar place of articulation?

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There is a smaller space between F2 and F3. F2 is high and F3 is low.  Two formants come together in a “velar pinch”.

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Define vowel reduction. When would you expect vowels to be more reduced: (a) in a stressed syllable versus an unstressed syllable? (b) in careful/clear speech versus casual/conversational speech? (c) in a typical speaker vs a speaker with dysarthria?

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Vowel reduction is used when the formant patterns of a vowel become neutralized. Vowels are expected to be more reduced in individuals with communication disorders. Vowel reduction occurs in unstressed syllables, casual/conversational speech, and a speaker with dysarthria.

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does every language/culture use infant directed speech ?

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no

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The more speech a child hears....

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the more clearly the clusters and boundaries in acoustic space will be defined.

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Explain what it means for infants to show distributional learning of phonetic categories.

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(how sounds cluster & separate in acoustic space).

Picture child’s mental representation as a blank map of acoustic space; a dot is added for each speech sound the child hears. Over time, clusters of dots come represent phonemic categories; gaps between clusters represent boundaries between categories.

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Up until what age is HAS considered an appropriate testing technique? Why is HAS less suitable for older infants?

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This technique is considered appropriate to infants under 4 months of age. Older infants are more active and less content merely to suck and listen. Older infants tend to their native language rather than being a universal perceiver of all languages.

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What are the two invariance problems in speech perceptions?

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Across phonetic contexts and across speakers

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Why is it so difficult for a computer to recognize a sound?

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The invariance problem across phonetic contexts -- computer needs to ID some property that is invariant across all instances of sound, but COARTICULATION happens

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen speech instrumentation Kurs an der New York University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

what are properties we use to characterize sound waves:

A:

◦ Frequency and period

◦ Amplitude

◦ Phase

◦ Periodic versus aperiodic

◦ Simple versus complex

Q:

In the segmentation problem, formant transition is part of the vowel but ____

A:

reflects properties of preceding or following consonant.

Q:

Suprasegmentals are properties of speech that typically span more than one speech sound or segment. What are the three primary suprasegmental features of speech?

A:

The three suprasegmental features of speech are intonation, duration, and stress.

Q:

Another component of the invariance problem is 

A:

speaker differences

Q:

What is the distinctive formant transition pattern associated with the velar place of articulation?

A:

There is a smaller space between F2 and F3. F2 is high and F3 is low.  Two formants come together in a “velar pinch”.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Define vowel reduction. When would you expect vowels to be more reduced: (a) in a stressed syllable versus an unstressed syllable? (b) in careful/clear speech versus casual/conversational speech? (c) in a typical speaker vs a speaker with dysarthria?

A:

Vowel reduction is used when the formant patterns of a vowel become neutralized. Vowels are expected to be more reduced in individuals with communication disorders. Vowel reduction occurs in unstressed syllables, casual/conversational speech, and a speaker with dysarthria.

Q:

does every language/culture use infant directed speech ?

A:

no

Q:

The more speech a child hears....

A:

the more clearly the clusters and boundaries in acoustic space will be defined.

Q:

Explain what it means for infants to show distributional learning of phonetic categories.

A:

(how sounds cluster & separate in acoustic space).

Picture child’s mental representation as a blank map of acoustic space; a dot is added for each speech sound the child hears. Over time, clusters of dots come represent phonemic categories; gaps between clusters represent boundaries between categories.

Q:

Up until what age is HAS considered an appropriate testing technique? Why is HAS less suitable for older infants?

A:

This technique is considered appropriate to infants under 4 months of age. Older infants are more active and less content merely to suck and listen. Older infants tend to their native language rather than being a universal perceiver of all languages.

Q:

What are the two invariance problems in speech perceptions?

A:

Across phonetic contexts and across speakers

Q:

Why is it so difficult for a computer to recognize a sound?

A:

The invariance problem across phonetic contexts -- computer needs to ID some property that is invariant across all instances of sound, but COARTICULATION happens

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