GER Quantitative Reasoning at National University Of Singapore | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für GER Quantitative Reasoning an der National University of Singapore

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What is ecological correlation 

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Correlation based on aggregates 

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Limitations with Correlation 

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Correlation does not imply causation 

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Why does ecological correlation overstate the strength of association in individuals 

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Variability among individuals will be eliminated once we use group averages as a unit

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Atomistic Fallacy 

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Applying correlation based on individuals towards the aggregates

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What is Attenuation effect 

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Data for the variable is restricted to a limited range as a result of the range of data in the first variable 



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Does the range restriction understate or overstate the strength of association betweem two variables?

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Understate

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What is the linear regression line?

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The best fit line. Can be found through excel. 

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What is a parameter?

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A parameter is a numerical fact about a population, usually not known to us but is of interest to the investigators 


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What is selection bias 

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Systemic tendency to exclude one kind of person from the sample due to

- IMPERFECT SAMPLING FRAME

- NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING METHODS 

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What is Non-Response Bias 

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Systematic tendency from subjects who do not respond to the survey (example uni graduate employment survey)

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To minimize bias in a survey we need to 

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1. Include every population unit in the frame 

2. Use a probability sampling method 

3. Get 100% response rate 

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What is confidence intervals 

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Range of values that we are reasonably certain that our unknown parameter lies in 

It is reported in two parts 

1. Confidence level (we are 95% sure)

2. Rage (that the population parameter is within 0.18 and 0.22)

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen GER Quantitative Reasoning Kurs an der National University of Singapore - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What is ecological correlation 

A:

Correlation based on aggregates 

Q:

Limitations with Correlation 

A:

Correlation does not imply causation 

Q:

Why does ecological correlation overstate the strength of association in individuals 

A:

Variability among individuals will be eliminated once we use group averages as a unit

Q:

Atomistic Fallacy 

A:

Applying correlation based on individuals towards the aggregates

Q:

What is Attenuation effect 

A:

Data for the variable is restricted to a limited range as a result of the range of data in the first variable 



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Q:

Does the range restriction understate or overstate the strength of association betweem two variables?

A:

Understate

Q:

What is the linear regression line?

A:

The best fit line. Can be found through excel. 

Q:

What is a parameter?

A:

A parameter is a numerical fact about a population, usually not known to us but is of interest to the investigators 


Q:

What is selection bias 

A:

Systemic tendency to exclude one kind of person from the sample due to

- IMPERFECT SAMPLING FRAME

- NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING METHODS 

Q:

What is Non-Response Bias 

A:

Systematic tendency from subjects who do not respond to the survey (example uni graduate employment survey)

Q:

To minimize bias in a survey we need to 

A:

1. Include every population unit in the frame 

2. Use a probability sampling method 

3. Get 100% response rate 

Q:

What is confidence intervals 

A:

Range of values that we are reasonably certain that our unknown parameter lies in 

It is reported in two parts 

1. Confidence level (we are 95% sure)

2. Rage (that the population parameter is within 0.18 and 0.22)

GER Quantitative Reasoning

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