Ecology at National University Of Ireland, Maynooth | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Ecology an der National University of Ireland, Maynooth

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What two ways does Natural selection act against a population of individuals 

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O

In a density-dependent manner, where the intensity of selection and the rate of mortality increases with
increasing population sizes

In a density-independent manner, where the rate of mortality is uniform irrespective of population size

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How does Density-dependent selection arise through competition

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Within species competition, known as Intraspecific competition, or

Between species competition, known as Interpsecific competition

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How does Density-dependent selection arise through competition 

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Within species competition, known as Intraspecific competition, or

Between species competition, known as Interpsecific competition

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what are the results of competitive exclusion 

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Supremacy
• Extinction
• Evasive or adaptive change

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What are some antipredator strategies

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A) Physical defense
B) Chemistry
C) Camouflage
D) Mimicry
E) Defensive Behavior

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What is trophic cascade

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Trophic cascade, an ecological phenomenon triggered by the addition or removal of
top predators and involving reciprocal changes in the relative populations of predator
and prey through a food chain, which often results in dramatic changes in ecosystem structure
and nutrient cycling.

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An example of Mutualism 

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Symbiosis is a specific form of mutualism where one or both participants are obligately
involved in the relationship, often (but not always) by being attached to the tissues of the
other

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What is ecosystem services and what services do they provide?

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Ecosystem Services are the benefits people obtain
from ecosystems. These include provisioning, regulating, and
cultural services that directly affect people and
supporting services needed to maintain the other services

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How do positive relations between biodiversity and ecosystems functioning arise ? 

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• Resource/niche partitioning occurs when species differ in their resource requirements, resulting in lower
competition from interspecific neighbors than from conspecifics. This may lead to a more complete
resource use by more biodiverse communities (Fridley 2001).
• Facilitation: Facilitative or positive interactions are encounters between organisms that benefit at least
one of the participants and cause harm to neither (facilitation (commensalism & mutualism).
- Resource/niche partitioning and facilitation are collectively referred to as ‘complementarity”
• ‘Portfolio Effect’ surmises that having higher biodiversity multiple species in a community is akin to
having multiple stocks in an investment portfolio, acting as insurance against variability in the
environment affecting a single species

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are some of the impacts of Ornamental Gardening ?

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Alters habitat, reduces
diversity
• Winter dieback
makes riparian
areas vulnerable to
erosion
• Can cause damage
to property

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why are some introduced species so successful ?

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Enemy release hypothesis: invasive species, on introduction to a new region,
experience a decrease in regulation by natural enemies, resulting in a rapid increase
in distribution and abundance

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what is a parasite

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A parasite is an organism that obtains its nutrients from one or a very few host individuals, normally causing
harm but not causing death immediately.

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Q:

What two ways does Natural selection act against a population of individuals 

A:

O

In a density-dependent manner, where the intensity of selection and the rate of mortality increases with
increasing population sizes

In a density-independent manner, where the rate of mortality is uniform irrespective of population size

Q:

How does Density-dependent selection arise through competition

A:

Within species competition, known as Intraspecific competition, or

Between species competition, known as Interpsecific competition

Q:

How does Density-dependent selection arise through competition 

A:

Within species competition, known as Intraspecific competition, or

Between species competition, known as Interpsecific competition

Q:

what are the results of competitive exclusion 

A:

Supremacy
• Extinction
• Evasive or adaptive change

Q:

What are some antipredator strategies

A:

A) Physical defense
B) Chemistry
C) Camouflage
D) Mimicry
E) Defensive Behavior

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What is trophic cascade

A:


Trophic cascade, an ecological phenomenon triggered by the addition or removal of
top predators and involving reciprocal changes in the relative populations of predator
and prey through a food chain, which often results in dramatic changes in ecosystem structure
and nutrient cycling.

Q:

An example of Mutualism 

A:

Symbiosis is a specific form of mutualism where one or both participants are obligately
involved in the relationship, often (but not always) by being attached to the tissues of the
other

Q:

What is ecosystem services and what services do they provide?

A:

Ecosystem Services are the benefits people obtain
from ecosystems. These include provisioning, regulating, and
cultural services that directly affect people and
supporting services needed to maintain the other services

Q:

How do positive relations between biodiversity and ecosystems functioning arise ? 

A:

• Resource/niche partitioning occurs when species differ in their resource requirements, resulting in lower
competition from interspecific neighbors than from conspecifics. This may lead to a more complete
resource use by more biodiverse communities (Fridley 2001).
• Facilitation: Facilitative or positive interactions are encounters between organisms that benefit at least
one of the participants and cause harm to neither (facilitation (commensalism & mutualism).
- Resource/niche partitioning and facilitation are collectively referred to as ‘complementarity”
• ‘Portfolio Effect’ surmises that having higher biodiversity multiple species in a community is akin to
having multiple stocks in an investment portfolio, acting as insurance against variability in the
environment affecting a single species

Q:

What are some of the impacts of Ornamental Gardening ?

A:

Alters habitat, reduces
diversity
• Winter dieback
makes riparian
areas vulnerable to
erosion
• Can cause damage
to property

Q:

Why are some introduced species so successful ?

A:

Enemy release hypothesis: invasive species, on introduction to a new region,
experience a decrease in regulation by natural enemies, resulting in a rapid increase
in distribution and abundance

Q:

what is a parasite

A:

A parasite is an organism that obtains its nutrients from one or a very few host individuals, normally causing
harm but not causing death immediately.

Ecology

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