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Lernmaterialien für pediatric an der Mogadishu University

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What happen to the circulation after the first breath of the infant ??
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1- pulmonary resistance fall
2- blood flow to the lungs increase 
3- blood flow to the left atrium increase
4- blood returning to the right atrium decrease due to exclusion of placenta 
5- cause of difference in pressure tha flap valve of foramen ovale close
6- ductous arteiosis will close after few hours to days  
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How to diagnose ineffective erythropoisis ??& dx of iron deficiency anemia ??
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are:
- normal reticulocyte count.
- abnormal mean cell volume (MCV) of the red cells: low in iron deficiency and raised in folic acid deficiency

Iron deficiency :- 
Low MCV 
Low MCH
Low serum ferritin 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
what’re the causes of iron deficiency anemia ??
& which’s the most common cause of i.d in infants ??
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- inadequate intake 
- malabsorption 
- blood loss
Inadequate intake of iron is most common cause of  iron deficiency anemia in infants because additional iron is required for the increase in blood volume accompanying growth and to build up the child’s iron stores.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How to diagnose vit B12 deficiency ?
What’s the DDx of it ??
And the treatment ??
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Dx :-
- low cobalamin level ( normally it’s > 301 pg   ( 155 pmol/ l ) when defcity is asymptomatic = < 170 pg/ml
Symptomatic = < 100 pg/ ml
- elevated level of mythylmalonic acid 
- moderate to severe with MCV quite elevated (100-140fl).
- in severe cases   Reduced reticulocyte wbs & platelet 
 DDx :-
- vit B12 vs folic acid deficity >>> RBC folic acid is lower in FA .
- vit B12 vs mylodysplastic syndrom >>> by morphology & low cobalamin + high mythylmalonic acid 
Treatment :- 
Initially by parental therapy > can be replaced with Oral or sublingual methylcobalamine (1mg/day) 
Intramuscular or subcutaneous injec of 100mcg of vitamin B12 are adequate for each dose. Replacement is usually given daily first week, weekly for the next month and monthly for life.


 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the focal seizure manifestations that depend on the site of brain affected ???
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Frontal seizures – involve the motor phenomena
Temporal lobe seizures – the most common of all the epilepsies, may result auditory or sensory ( smell or taste ) phenomena
Occipital seizures – cause positive or negative visual phenomena
Parietal lobe seizures –  cause contralateral altered sensation (dysesthesias)  


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Till which level of hg the children remain asymptomatic ?? & what’re the c/p of anemic child ??

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Till hg drops to 60 - 70 g/L
Sx :-
- children tire easily and young infants feed more slowly than usual.
- pallor of the conjunctivae, tongue or palmar creases.
- Some children have ‘pica’, 
history should include asking about blood loss and symptoms or signs suggesting malabsorption.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What’re the causes of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies ????
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
hypoxic event immediately before or during labour or delivery.

1- failure of gas exchange across the placenta – excessive or prolonged uterine contractions, placental abruption, ruptured uterus
2- Interruption of umbilical blood flow – cord compression including shoulder dystocia, cord prolapse
3- Inadequate maternal placental perfusion, maternal hypotension or hypertension – often with intrauterine growth restriction
4- Compromised fetus – anemia, intrauterine growth restriction
5- Failure of cardiorespiratory adaptation at birth – failure to breathe.


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What’s the name of the stem cell in bone marrow that replace and produce blood cells ???
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What’s the most common cause of cyanotic  congenital heart disease ??
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Teratolgy of fallot 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What’re the types of Hg and their consistence ????
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Types :- hgF , hgA , hgA2 
hgF made up of 2 alpha chains and 2 gamma chains 
Adult 2 alpha and 2 beta
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What’re the types of ASD ??
Explain how they form , their c/p , inves & management ?? 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Tow types :- 
Secondum ASD & partial AVSD 
 secundum ASD is a defect in the center of the atrial septum + foramen ovale.
AVSD is a defect of the AV septum and is characterized by:
an interatrial communication(primum ASD
-abnormal AV valves, with a left atrioventricular valve which has three leaflets and tends to leak (regurgitant valve).
C/p :- sx - asymptomatic -Recurrent chest infections/wheeze
Arrhythmias (fourth decade onwards).
Signs wide S2 split & ejection systolic murmur + pansystolic murmur 
Inves € C xray , ecg & echo
Ttt € secondum = cardiac catherazation 
AVSD = surgical correction 


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Classify anemia ??
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1-Microcytic hypochromic anemia:
Iron deficiency aneamia
Thalassemia
Anemia of chronic disease
Lead toxicity
Zinc deficiency
2- Macrocytic (megaloblastic ) anemia
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Folate deficiency
DNA synthesis inhibitors
 3- Macrocytic (nonmegaloblastic) anemia:
Aplastic anemia
Myelodysplasia
Liver disease
Raticulocytosis
Hypothyrodism
Bone marrow failure
Copper deficiency
4- Normocytic anemia:
Kidney disease
Nonthyroid endocrine gland failure
Copper deficiency




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  • 42 Studierende
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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen pediatric Kurs an der Mogadishu University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
What happen to the circulation after the first breath of the infant ??
A:
1- pulmonary resistance fall
2- blood flow to the lungs increase 
3- blood flow to the left atrium increase
4- blood returning to the right atrium decrease due to exclusion of placenta 
5- cause of difference in pressure tha flap valve of foramen ovale close
6- ductous arteiosis will close after few hours to days  
Q:
How to diagnose ineffective erythropoisis ??& dx of iron deficiency anemia ??
A:
are:
- normal reticulocyte count.
- abnormal mean cell volume (MCV) of the red cells: low in iron deficiency and raised in folic acid deficiency

Iron deficiency :- 
Low MCV 
Low MCH
Low serum ferritin 
Q:
what’re the causes of iron deficiency anemia ??
& which’s the most common cause of i.d in infants ??
A:
- inadequate intake 
- malabsorption 
- blood loss
Inadequate intake of iron is most common cause of  iron deficiency anemia in infants because additional iron is required for the increase in blood volume accompanying growth and to build up the child’s iron stores.


Q:
How to diagnose vit B12 deficiency ?
What’s the DDx of it ??
And the treatment ??
A:
Dx :-
- low cobalamin level ( normally it’s > 301 pg   ( 155 pmol/ l ) when defcity is asymptomatic = < 170 pg/ml
Symptomatic = < 100 pg/ ml
- elevated level of mythylmalonic acid 
- moderate to severe with MCV quite elevated (100-140fl).
- in severe cases   Reduced reticulocyte wbs & platelet 
 DDx :-
- vit B12 vs folic acid deficity >>> RBC folic acid is lower in FA .
- vit B12 vs mylodysplastic syndrom >>> by morphology & low cobalamin + high mythylmalonic acid 
Treatment :- 
Initially by parental therapy > can be replaced with Oral or sublingual methylcobalamine (1mg/day) 
Intramuscular or subcutaneous injec of 100mcg of vitamin B12 are adequate for each dose. Replacement is usually given daily first week, weekly for the next month and monthly for life.


 
Q:
Describe the focal seizure manifestations that depend on the site of brain affected ???
A:
Frontal seizures – involve the motor phenomena
Temporal lobe seizures – the most common of all the epilepsies, may result auditory or sensory ( smell or taste ) phenomena
Occipital seizures – cause positive or negative visual phenomena
Parietal lobe seizures –  cause contralateral altered sensation (dysesthesias)  


Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Till which level of hg the children remain asymptomatic ?? & what’re the c/p of anemic child ??

A:
Till hg drops to 60 - 70 g/L
Sx :-
- children tire easily and young infants feed more slowly than usual.
- pallor of the conjunctivae, tongue or palmar creases.
- Some children have ‘pica’, 
history should include asking about blood loss and symptoms or signs suggesting malabsorption.
Q:
What’re the causes of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies ????
A:
hypoxic event immediately before or during labour or delivery.

1- failure of gas exchange across the placenta – excessive or prolonged uterine contractions, placental abruption, ruptured uterus
2- Interruption of umbilical blood flow – cord compression including shoulder dystocia, cord prolapse
3- Inadequate maternal placental perfusion, maternal hypotension or hypertension – often with intrauterine growth restriction
4- Compromised fetus – anemia, intrauterine growth restriction
5- Failure of cardiorespiratory adaptation at birth – failure to breathe.


Q:
What’s the name of the stem cell in bone marrow that replace and produce blood cells ???
A:
Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell
Q:
What’s the most common cause of cyanotic  congenital heart disease ??
A:
Teratolgy of fallot 
Q:
What’re the types of Hg and their consistence ????
A:
Types :- hgF , hgA , hgA2 
hgF made up of 2 alpha chains and 2 gamma chains 
Adult 2 alpha and 2 beta
Q:
What’re the types of ASD ??
Explain how they form , their c/p , inves & management ?? 
A:
Tow types :- 
Secondum ASD & partial AVSD 
 secundum ASD is a defect in the center of the atrial septum + foramen ovale.
AVSD is a defect of the AV septum and is characterized by:
an interatrial communication(primum ASD
-abnormal AV valves, with a left atrioventricular valve which has three leaflets and tends to leak (regurgitant valve).
C/p :- sx - asymptomatic -Recurrent chest infections/wheeze
Arrhythmias (fourth decade onwards).
Signs wide S2 split & ejection systolic murmur + pansystolic murmur 
Inves € C xray , ecg & echo
Ttt € secondum = cardiac catherazation 
AVSD = surgical correction 


Q:
Classify anemia ??
A:
1-Microcytic hypochromic anemia:
Iron deficiency aneamia
Thalassemia
Anemia of chronic disease
Lead toxicity
Zinc deficiency
2- Macrocytic (megaloblastic ) anemia
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Folate deficiency
DNA synthesis inhibitors
 3- Macrocytic (nonmegaloblastic) anemia:
Aplastic anemia
Myelodysplasia
Liver disease
Raticulocytosis
Hypothyrodism
Bone marrow failure
Copper deficiency
4- Normocytic anemia:
Kidney disease
Nonthyroid endocrine gland failure
Copper deficiency




pediatric

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