Eng101 B7 at Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute Of Technology | Flashcards & Summaries

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Sociocultural Theory by Vygotsky 
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This theory claims that social and cultural interaction plays a vital part in languange development. It suggests that in order for language to progress, it must undergo a social process. 
Zone be of Proximal Development refers to the distance between what children can do without any help from an adult and what they can do with help or guidance from an adult. 
Scaffolding refers to the initial support given by an adult in order for the child continue and achieve progress. 
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Explain Competence and Performance 
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Competence refers to the commendable ability of someone to do something. In a linguistic view, it refers to the knowledge someone has with how the language works and its mechanisms such as grammar, the structure rules, so on and so forth. Performance on the other hand, refers to the exact production of something. It is an issue because if a person lacks competence, it may have a bad effect on his/her linguistic performance. Not having knowledge on how the language works just means not being able to use that certain language. 
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Comprehension and Production 
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Research suggests the idea of comprehension over production which means humans tend to understand a lot of information but produce only a small portion of that information. This goes along with children, and even us, adults. I think that this is due to some factors like the environment or the shyness of a person which hinders them from producing speech. 
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Nature vs Nurture
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Nature supports the idea of Chomsky which states that language is innate among people and that this innateness is universal among all people. Nurture, on the other hand, supports the idea of behaviorists that language is learned and developed through teaching. I think Chomsky's theory makes more sense to me because it explains much about how new born babies automatically learn to communicate through nonverbal cues without no one teaching them. Also, it explains how little by little, the speech of children develops even if they haven't been taught or trained. 
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Universals 
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This states that language acquisition is universal among all humans and that languages, no matter how different they are, may share commonalities such as the structure or the grammar. I actually agree on this one because I think that at the beginning, there was really one language, however, it dispersed through time and when our ancestors decided to migrate to different areas. 
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Explain Social Interaction and Language Development 
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Social Interaction and Language Development is the second social constructivist emphasis of the functional perspective. It is believed that interaction with peers or any individual plays a vital role in developing language. Children learn languages because they want to communicate with the people and things around them. Language is produced out from, and is reliant on, social interaction. We use language to communicate with others and as we converse with time constantly, we eventually learn the mechanisms of a conversation. 
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Language and Thought 
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Language and Thought are two completely different concepts. However, experts say that they somehow affect each other. Piaget claimed that congnitive development affects language while some also claimed the otherwise. I think that these two affect one another because if you think of it, language is needed to express our thoughts and sometimes, you can't produce language without having initial thoughts about such. 
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Imitation 
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This is one of the important strategies that children use in early language acquisition. There are two types of imitation, first the surface structure imitation where a person imitates only the surface just like how it should be pronounced. Another is the deep structure imitation where a person focuses on the meaning and context of the word he/she is mimicking. I think the fact that children are really good imitators is the reason why adults should be keen enough on every word they speak because oftentimes, children use the surface structure information and might speak the wrong words without knowing it.
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Practice
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My understanding on this is that a child eventually prouduces a well-developed speech if he/she had undergone practice. It does not only focus on the verbal aspect but also the cognitive aspect. Such practice could be done at home in a form of discourse maybe or even exercises that could help the child enhance his linguistic capabilities. It's like the old saying, "practice makes perfect". 
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Input
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Input refers to the information parents and elders instill in the minds of children. Since it is known that they are good imitators, they tend to speak what they hear. The primary source of information is usually the home which is why discourse through family members actually help children improve their linguistic capabilities. 
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Discourse
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This states that interaction is more effective in language learning thsn just mere exposure. It is necessary for a child to experience being in a conversation in order to learn about the rules of conversation. The child cannot attain such information by just merely observing others conversing. 
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Systematicity and Variability 
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This states that children develop language systematically or following a various of steps or stages. From pivot grammar to learning the different mechanisms and techinicalities of language as they embark on their journey of growing into adults. However, such information may be forgotten or changed along the way due to some variables because children tend to forget the old information they gathered when you face them with new information. 
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Q:
Sociocultural Theory by Vygotsky 
A:
This theory claims that social and cultural interaction plays a vital part in languange development. It suggests that in order for language to progress, it must undergo a social process. 
Zone be of Proximal Development refers to the distance between what children can do without any help from an adult and what they can do with help or guidance from an adult. 
Scaffolding refers to the initial support given by an adult in order for the child continue and achieve progress. 
Q:
Explain Competence and Performance 
A:
Competence refers to the commendable ability of someone to do something. In a linguistic view, it refers to the knowledge someone has with how the language works and its mechanisms such as grammar, the structure rules, so on and so forth. Performance on the other hand, refers to the exact production of something. It is an issue because if a person lacks competence, it may have a bad effect on his/her linguistic performance. Not having knowledge on how the language works just means not being able to use that certain language. 
Q:
Comprehension and Production 
A:
Research suggests the idea of comprehension over production which means humans tend to understand a lot of information but produce only a small portion of that information. This goes along with children, and even us, adults. I think that this is due to some factors like the environment or the shyness of a person which hinders them from producing speech. 
Q:
Nature vs Nurture
A:
Nature supports the idea of Chomsky which states that language is innate among people and that this innateness is universal among all people. Nurture, on the other hand, supports the idea of behaviorists that language is learned and developed through teaching. I think Chomsky's theory makes more sense to me because it explains much about how new born babies automatically learn to communicate through nonverbal cues without no one teaching them. Also, it explains how little by little, the speech of children develops even if they haven't been taught or trained. 
Q:
Universals 
A:
This states that language acquisition is universal among all humans and that languages, no matter how different they are, may share commonalities such as the structure or the grammar. I actually agree on this one because I think that at the beginning, there was really one language, however, it dispersed through time and when our ancestors decided to migrate to different areas. 
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Q:
Explain Social Interaction and Language Development 
A:
Social Interaction and Language Development is the second social constructivist emphasis of the functional perspective. It is believed that interaction with peers or any individual plays a vital role in developing language. Children learn languages because they want to communicate with the people and things around them. Language is produced out from, and is reliant on, social interaction. We use language to communicate with others and as we converse with time constantly, we eventually learn the mechanisms of a conversation. 
Q:
Language and Thought 
A:
Language and Thought are two completely different concepts. However, experts say that they somehow affect each other. Piaget claimed that congnitive development affects language while some also claimed the otherwise. I think that these two affect one another because if you think of it, language is needed to express our thoughts and sometimes, you can't produce language without having initial thoughts about such. 
Q:
Imitation 
A:
This is one of the important strategies that children use in early language acquisition. There are two types of imitation, first the surface structure imitation where a person imitates only the surface just like how it should be pronounced. Another is the deep structure imitation where a person focuses on the meaning and context of the word he/she is mimicking. I think the fact that children are really good imitators is the reason why adults should be keen enough on every word they speak because oftentimes, children use the surface structure information and might speak the wrong words without knowing it.
Q:
Practice
A:
My understanding on this is that a child eventually prouduces a well-developed speech if he/she had undergone practice. It does not only focus on the verbal aspect but also the cognitive aspect. Such practice could be done at home in a form of discourse maybe or even exercises that could help the child enhance his linguistic capabilities. It's like the old saying, "practice makes perfect". 
Q:
Input
A:
Input refers to the information parents and elders instill in the minds of children. Since it is known that they are good imitators, they tend to speak what they hear. The primary source of information is usually the home which is why discourse through family members actually help children improve their linguistic capabilities. 
Q:
Discourse
A:
This states that interaction is more effective in language learning thsn just mere exposure. It is necessary for a child to experience being in a conversation in order to learn about the rules of conversation. The child cannot attain such information by just merely observing others conversing. 
Q:
Systematicity and Variability 
A:
This states that children develop language systematically or following a various of steps or stages. From pivot grammar to learning the different mechanisms and techinicalities of language as they embark on their journey of growing into adults. However, such information may be forgotten or changed along the way due to some variables because children tend to forget the old information they gathered when you face them with new information. 
Eng101 B7

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