B06 - Basics Of Science And Research at Medizinische Universität Wien | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für B06 - Basics of Science and Research an der Medizinische Universität Wien

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What means "peer-reviewed"?

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Peer-review = a type of control, before a paper will be published. Prior to publication, each article is reviewed by other experts in the field. Authors may have to edit their manuscripts or explain their reasoning as a result of the peer-review process. Papers will be rejected for publication if they fail. The majority of reputable academic journals are peer-reviewed.

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What is the so-called "impact factor"?

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Impact Factor = Quality criteria for journals; used to measure the importance or rank of a journal by measuring of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year.

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How to decide wich literature should be used?

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  • WHO provided the information and why?  Is the author trustful (a doctor, nurse, health organization, respected expert, commercial company, interested individual)? Are they qualified or reputable? Are they representing themselves or an organization? Are they using selected facts to sell an ideology or medical viewpoint? Is the information backed up with references?


  • WHEN was the information published?  Is there a publication date? Is there a copyright notice? If you are looking at health statistics, how far back does the data go? Is the coverage period clear? How frequently is the site updated? Do the links work? Is a webmaster or contact email address available? How established is the resource – will it still be there next week?


  • WHERE is the information held and where did it come from?  Is the server commercial, educational or organizational? Is it an individual’s page or a university web site? Is the validity of the information compromised by the aims of the host organization? Is the information from the UK, Asia or America? Does this affect the validity of the information? Quality of journal (international / national)?
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Why do we need a successful literature search?

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A successful literature search presents an overview of relevant literature, says why and how your study will contribute to existing knowledge & states what you plan to do to expand existing knowledge. It highlights the similarities and differences between your work and the work of others & locates the research problem within a theoretical framework and reviews the underlying theory.

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What is the difference in simple and advanced literature search?

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  • Simple Search: with the simple search, you are free with which search term you are working; watch out for typos & don’t use specific terms! Use truncations if you are not sure how to write something correctly.


  • Advanced Search: by the advanced search you can restrict the search criteria from the beginning – search for particular book title, authors, keywords or ISBN-numbers & link your search terms to Boolean operators. As well, the media type, the language and the publication date can be limited.
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What is the difference in direct & indirect citation?

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  • Direct Citation (or quotations): are word-for-word adaptions of someone else’s text section in your text. The use of direct citations should be avoided. If a direct quote from a book, an article, … is used, you must: use single quotation marks & state the pager number.


  • Indirect Citation (paraphrasing): are analogous adoptions of someone else’s text sections and contents. Usually, this kind of citation is documented by a short reference in the text (name or number) and a full reference is listed in the reference list at the end of the work. Each reference cited in your text should have an unique number, assigned in the order of citation. If you cite a reference more than once in your text, the same citation number should be used.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Give a short overview about how to plan you quantitative research project.

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  1. Identify a problem of importance!
  2. Why do you want to do this?
  3. Research question (helps to focus)
  4. Review literature (primary sources)
  5. Construct hypothesis
  6. Choose design and methods
  7. Test hypothesis (proof / disproof)
  8. Draw conclusions & answer research question
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What different types of research questions do you know?

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  • Existence: Do senior citizens suffer from general slowing?
  • Description / Classification: What are the characteristics of span of attention?
  • Composition: What are the factors that increase crimes?
  • Relationship: Is saving directly related to income?
  • Descriptive-Comparative: Are instructions with text and graphics are better?
  • Causality: Does dividing attention degrade performance?
  • Causality-Comparative: Is swimming better than cycling to build up muscles?
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What are the characteristics of a good hypothesis?

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  • Testable (can be tested with planned methods)
  • Should be as simple as possible
  • Directed / undirected – specific / unspecific
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What different kind of quantitative study methods do you know?

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  • Retrospective study design
  • Prospective study design
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Give the main points about observational designs!

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  • Exploratory studies used when the state of knowledge about the phenomenon is poor: small scale, of limited duration. Their aim is to explore an unknown field.


  • Descriptive studies (often surveys) also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. However, it does not answer questions about eg: how/when/why the characteristics occurred, which is done under analytic research. Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship where one variable affects another.


  • Analytical Studies used to test hypotheses: small / large scale. Examples: case-control, cross-sectional, cohort
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the different types of Literature?

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  • Primary literature: a primary source is the result of original scientific research or observation. The document collects original data such as controlled trial, cohort study or questionnaire. Generally, very specific. Examples: journal articles (= an article reporting new and original research or findings written by the original researcher), Grant proposal & original documents (e.g. diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footages, autobiographies, …).


  • Secondary literature: a secondary source interprets and analyses primary sources. The data obtained in primary research are used to generate new data and conclusions. There is no collecting of original data, instead the researcher is reliant on the data collected by others. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them. Example: systematic literature reviews (= summarizing and synthesizing research that has already been carried out; great for getting an insight into a specific topic) & magazines / journal articles (= interpret or review previous or present findings in way more accessible to the general public. They are not written by the original researcher).


  • Tertiary Literature: a tertiary source compile or digest information from primary or secondary sources that has become widely accepted. They aim to provide a broad overview of a topic or data, already proven facts & definitions, often presented in a convenient form. They provide no new information. Example: textbooks, encyclopedias, fact books, guides & handbooks, computer databases, …
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Q:

What means "peer-reviewed"?

A:

Peer-review = a type of control, before a paper will be published. Prior to publication, each article is reviewed by other experts in the field. Authors may have to edit their manuscripts or explain their reasoning as a result of the peer-review process. Papers will be rejected for publication if they fail. The majority of reputable academic journals are peer-reviewed.

Q:

What is the so-called "impact factor"?

A:

Impact Factor = Quality criteria for journals; used to measure the importance or rank of a journal by measuring of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year.

Q:

How to decide wich literature should be used?

A:
  • WHO provided the information and why?  Is the author trustful (a doctor, nurse, health organization, respected expert, commercial company, interested individual)? Are they qualified or reputable? Are they representing themselves or an organization? Are they using selected facts to sell an ideology or medical viewpoint? Is the information backed up with references?


  • WHEN was the information published?  Is there a publication date? Is there a copyright notice? If you are looking at health statistics, how far back does the data go? Is the coverage period clear? How frequently is the site updated? Do the links work? Is a webmaster or contact email address available? How established is the resource – will it still be there next week?


  • WHERE is the information held and where did it come from?  Is the server commercial, educational or organizational? Is it an individual’s page or a university web site? Is the validity of the information compromised by the aims of the host organization? Is the information from the UK, Asia or America? Does this affect the validity of the information? Quality of journal (international / national)?
Q:

Why do we need a successful literature search?

A:

A successful literature search presents an overview of relevant literature, says why and how your study will contribute to existing knowledge & states what you plan to do to expand existing knowledge. It highlights the similarities and differences between your work and the work of others & locates the research problem within a theoretical framework and reviews the underlying theory.

Q:

What is the difference in simple and advanced literature search?

A:
  • Simple Search: with the simple search, you are free with which search term you are working; watch out for typos & don’t use specific terms! Use truncations if you are not sure how to write something correctly.


  • Advanced Search: by the advanced search you can restrict the search criteria from the beginning – search for particular book title, authors, keywords or ISBN-numbers & link your search terms to Boolean operators. As well, the media type, the language and the publication date can be limited.
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Q:

What is the difference in direct & indirect citation?

A:
  • Direct Citation (or quotations): are word-for-word adaptions of someone else’s text section in your text. The use of direct citations should be avoided. If a direct quote from a book, an article, … is used, you must: use single quotation marks & state the pager number.


  • Indirect Citation (paraphrasing): are analogous adoptions of someone else’s text sections and contents. Usually, this kind of citation is documented by a short reference in the text (name or number) and a full reference is listed in the reference list at the end of the work. Each reference cited in your text should have an unique number, assigned in the order of citation. If you cite a reference more than once in your text, the same citation number should be used.
Q:

Give a short overview about how to plan you quantitative research project.

A:
  1. Identify a problem of importance!
  2. Why do you want to do this?
  3. Research question (helps to focus)
  4. Review literature (primary sources)
  5. Construct hypothesis
  6. Choose design and methods
  7. Test hypothesis (proof / disproof)
  8. Draw conclusions & answer research question
Q:

What different types of research questions do you know?

A:
  • Existence: Do senior citizens suffer from general slowing?
  • Description / Classification: What are the characteristics of span of attention?
  • Composition: What are the factors that increase crimes?
  • Relationship: Is saving directly related to income?
  • Descriptive-Comparative: Are instructions with text and graphics are better?
  • Causality: Does dividing attention degrade performance?
  • Causality-Comparative: Is swimming better than cycling to build up muscles?
Q:

What are the characteristics of a good hypothesis?

A:
  • Testable (can be tested with planned methods)
  • Should be as simple as possible
  • Directed / undirected – specific / unspecific
Q:

What different kind of quantitative study methods do you know?

A:
  • Retrospective study design
  • Prospective study design
Q:

Give the main points about observational designs!

A:
  • Exploratory studies used when the state of knowledge about the phenomenon is poor: small scale, of limited duration. Their aim is to explore an unknown field.


  • Descriptive studies (often surveys) also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. However, it does not answer questions about eg: how/when/why the characteristics occurred, which is done under analytic research. Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship where one variable affects another.


  • Analytical Studies used to test hypotheses: small / large scale. Examples: case-control, cross-sectional, cohort
Q:

What are the different types of Literature?

A:
  • Primary literature: a primary source is the result of original scientific research or observation. The document collects original data such as controlled trial, cohort study or questionnaire. Generally, very specific. Examples: journal articles (= an article reporting new and original research or findings written by the original researcher), Grant proposal & original documents (e.g. diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footages, autobiographies, …).


  • Secondary literature: a secondary source interprets and analyses primary sources. The data obtained in primary research are used to generate new data and conclusions. There is no collecting of original data, instead the researcher is reliant on the data collected by others. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them. Example: systematic literature reviews (= summarizing and synthesizing research that has already been carried out; great for getting an insight into a specific topic) & magazines / journal articles (= interpret or review previous or present findings in way more accessible to the general public. They are not written by the original researcher).


  • Tertiary Literature: a tertiary source compile or digest information from primary or secondary sources that has become widely accepted. They aim to provide a broad overview of a topic or data, already proven facts & definitions, often presented in a convenient form. They provide no new information. Example: textbooks, encyclopedias, fact books, guides & handbooks, computer databases, …
B06 - Basics of Science and Research

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