B02 - Somatology at Medizinische Universität Wien

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What are basic histological methods? 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What are the most common fixative for light & electron microscopy? How do these fixatives work? 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What are the main steps in tissue processing? 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Definition of a tissue? 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What are the main functions of connective tissue? 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What are the basic characteristics of connective tissue? 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What is the extracellular matrix composed of? 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What are Glycosaminoglycans? 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

How is collagen build up? 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What are the main types of collagen? 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Name different types of connective tissue proper. 

Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Name the cells of cartilage & explain the composition of the matrix. 

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Exemplary flashcards for B02 - Somatology at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

B02 - Somatology

What are basic histological methods? 

                                               

o Cell Cultures (in vivo, fixed samples)


o Smear preparation (blood smears, vaginal smears, fixed & (specifically) stained) 


o Histological Sections (fixed and stained)

                                       

B02 - Somatology

What are the most common fixative for light & electron microscopy? How do these fixatives work? 

light-microscopy is 4% Formaldehyde


electron microscopy 2,5% Glutaraldehyde

                                   

                                               

These fixatives preserve tissues and cells mainly by irreversibly cross-linking proteins. Their main action is to cross-link amino groups in proteins through the formation of methylene bridges. 

                                       

    

                                       

B02 - Somatology

What are the main steps in tissue processing? 

                                               

o Fixation: stabilization of the in vivo situation
o Dehydration: converting hydrophilic into lipophilic cells for infiltration
o Embedding: infiltration & hardening of tissue in embedding material (paraffin, 61°C) 

o Cutting: preparing thin section (~ 5-10 μm) with microtomes
o Staining: visualization of cell / tissue components by differential staining
o Covering: preparing permanent specimens --> Microscopy

                                       

B02 - Somatology

Definition of a tissue? 

                                                                       

Tissues are the organization level between cells and organs. They are ensembles of cells of same origin and often similar morphology that together carry out a specific / common function. They may be composed of only one or different cell types. Despite of its complexity, the human body consists only of four basic types of tissues that form in different amounts and composition of cells and matrix and association with one another the different organs:

       

o Connective Tissue (Connective Tissue Proper, Bones, Cartilage, Adipose Tissue)

o Epithelial Tissue
o Muscle Tissue
o Nervous Tissue 

                                                           

B02 - Somatology

What are the main functions of connective tissue? 

    

o Frames of organs and of the body
o Place of immune defense
o Anchorage and attachment
o Medium for diffusion or nutrient and waste 

o Aids in injury repair

o Storage (lipids)

                                                           

B02 - Somatology

What are the basic characteristics of connective tissue? 

Cells: can be resident or mobile (free, temporary on site --> immune system!) 


Extracellular matrix: can be amorphous (unstructured) or structured; 

B02 - Somatology

What is the extracellular matrix composed of? 

Synthesized and secreted by the tissue specific resident cells (“blast-cells”, e.g. Fibroblasts, Osteoblasts, Chondroblasts) which indicates this active state;

                                       

Generally, the matrix is composed of structured elements (fibers and fibrils) and the unstructured ground substance:

                                       

  • Fibrils / Fibers: Collagen (different types, tissue specific) fibers & elastic fibers;

  • Ground Substance: an amorphous substance that can exist as a liquid, gel or flexible
    solid, conferring unique structural properties to each connective tissue.

                                       


B02 - Somatology

What are Glycosaminoglycans? 

                                               

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long linear (unbranched) polysaccharides consisting of repeating disaccharide units. One sugar: GlcNAc / GalNAc; Second Sugar: uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or Galactose; 


Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water; they are therefore useful to the body as a lubricant or as a shock absorber (Water binding --> high turgor & compression resistance; Negative Charge --> high Cation-binding!)

                   

GAG-Family: Chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, heparin, heparin sulfate, hyaluronan;

                                       

B02 - Somatology

How is collagen build up? 

                                               

It consists of amino acids bound together to form a triple helix of elongated fibrils (= collagen helix). It is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin. Depending upon the degree of mineralization, collagen tissues may be rigid (bone), compliant (tendon), or have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). 

                                       

B02 - Somatology

What are the main types of collagen? 

  • Type I: fibrils aggregate into fibers and fiber bundles; (e.g. skin, tendon, bone, ligaments, dentin, interstitial tissues); Over 90% of the collagen in the human body is type I collagen.        
                                  
  • Type II: fibrils do not form fibers; present in hyaline & elastic cartilage;            
                         
  • Type III: fibrils aggregate into fibers; present surrounding muscle cells & nerve fibers; forms the stroma of lymphatic tissues and organs; (e.g. skin, muscle, blood vessels);

  • Type IV: Chemically unique form of collagen; primarily found in the basal lamina;
                                           
  • Elastic fibers: Composed of Elastin (central amorphous core) surrounded by microfibrils (fibrillin); occur in most connective tissue in varying amounts and are intermixed with collagen fibers.
                                                  
  • Reticular fibers:
    Collagen Type III fibers, stain with silver (argyrophilic); major fiber type in reticular connective tissue (e.g. in the stoma of lymphoid organs, fat tissue, component of basement membrane); 

B02 - Somatology

Name different types of connective tissue proper. 

Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue (which is further subdivided into dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues). Loose and dense connective tissue are distinguished by the ratio of ground substance to fibrous tissue.

                                       

  • Loose Connective Tissue: has much more ground substance and a relative lack of fibrous tissue; e.g. mucosa and submucosa of organs;

                   

  • Dense Connective Tissue: has much more collagen fibers than cells; dens regular: tendons & ligaments; dense irregular: dermis of the skin;


  • Reticular Connective Tissue: organs of immune system;


  • Elastic Connective Tissue: wall of the aorta


  • Mucoid Connective Tissue: umbilical cord (Wharton’s’ jelly)

                                       

B02 - Somatology

Name the cells of cartilage & explain the composition of the matrix. 

  • Cells: chondroblasts, chondrocytes & condroclasts; 


  • Matrix: ground substance (amorphous; hyaluronic acid aggrecan & water) + fibrils (collagen II, masked minor collagens IX & XI) 


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