B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at Medizinische Universität Wien

Flashcards and summaries for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Definition of a polytrauma? Early vs. late lethality. 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Shortly explain emergency room management! 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Different types of orthopedics? 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Primary vs secondary arthrosis?
How can you prevent joint diseases? 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Give a short overview of PM&R! 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Can dyspnea be measured? 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Different types of respiratory insufficiency? 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What are possible reasons for exercise induced dyspnea? 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What are characteristics of a tumor? 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Benign / semi-malignant / malignant tumors are ? 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Tumor: grading vs staging? 

Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Modern management of tumor patients? 

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Exemplary flashcards for B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences at the Medizinische Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

Definition of a polytrauma? Early vs. late lethality. 

Definition of Polytrauma: Simultaneously injuries of more (min 2) body regions and: at least 1 injury or the combination of injuries is life-threatening! One injury can be survived, but in combination and cumulation.

                       

-> Early lethality: blood loss and brain damage
-> Late lethality: sepsis and MODS (multi-organ-dysfunction-syndrome)

                       

Etiology: traffic accidents 57%, falling from high altitude 14%, suicide 7%;

                                                           

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

Shortly explain emergency room management! 

                                               

® Stage 1: Stabilization of the vital parameters (0-5min):
Trauma surgeon: bedding, bleeding control, taking clothes off • Anesthesia: Intubation, RR-control, intravenous access
Radiology: Sonography abdomen, X-ray C/P

                   

® Stage 2: Emergency procedures (6-15min):
Trauma surgeon: clinical examination
Anesthesia: Volume substitution, blood gas analysis etc. Radiology: Spiral-CT head and trunk

                   

® Stage 3: Further procedures (16-30min):
Trauma surgeon: bladder catheter, Tetanus, Re-evaluation Anesthesia: Volume, Blood transfusion, Warming Radiology: X-rays Extremities, Spine ap

                   

® Stage 4: Afterwards (31-60min):
Trauma surgeon: Organisation OP, Documentation
Anesthesia: central venous catheter, Organisation I-bed, Documentation Radiology: CT-Diagnostics, Controll Sonography Abdomen, Documentation

                                       


CAVE: 

A patient with much blood in the abdomen does not bleed in the brain (he has no blood to bleed in the head). Therefore, begin with the abdomen, follow with the head (craniotomy, if necessary), then stabilize the fractures of long bones (which bleed most) & postpone the stabilization of less important fracture.

                                       

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

Different types of orthopedics? 

                                                                       

® Conservative orthopedics
® Orthopedic surgery (e.g. joint preserving surgery)
® Arthroplasty (e.g. joint resurfacing – Joint replacement)

                                                           

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

Primary vs secondary arthrosis?
How can you prevent joint diseases? 

                                               

Primary arthrosis: cartilage degradation;
Secondary arthrosis: due to trauma, hereditary joint disease, infection, inflammation, ...

                   

Prevention of joint diseases: mobility, activity, sports, early detection of malalignment (e.g. hip dysplasia, spine), joint protection by physical training & supports and avoidance of chronical overload (e.g. posture, BMI, occupational stress, ...);

                                       

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

Give a short overview of PM&R! 

                                                                       

Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) are a medical specialty concerned with diagnosis, evaluation, and management of persons of all ages with physical and/or cognitive impairment and disability.

                       

This specialty involves diagnosis and treatment of patients with painful or functionally limiting conditions, the management of comorbidities and co- impairments, electrodiagnostic medicine, and emphasis on prevention of complications of disability from secondary conditions:

                       

® rehabilitation of neurologic disorders
® diagnosis and management of impairments of the musculoskeletal (including

                       

sports and occupational aspects)
® the long-term management of patients with disabling conditions

                       

Physiatrists provide leadership to multidisciplinary teams concerned with maximal restoration or development of physical, psychological, social, occupational and vocational functions in persons whose abilities have been limited by disease, trauma, congenital disorders or pain to enable people.

                                                           

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

Can dyspnea be measured? 

No! 


                                               

But we can measure, if the homeostasis with respect to gas exchange (adequate oxygenation) and the acid-base status of the organism (adjust PaCO2 to maintain normal pH) is disturbedàMeasurement of oxygen-saturation & Blood-gas-analysis;

                   

Dyspnea is not restricted to respiratory diseases. Dyspnea is a frequent symptom of respiratory insufficiency. But not every patient recognizes respiratory insufficiency and feels dyspnea!!Not every perception of dyspnea is the result of respiratory insufficiency!!

                                       

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

Different types of respiratory insufficiency? 

                                               

® Type I insufficiency: Hypoxemia with normal (or reduced) CO2:
pO2 < 60mm Hg (SaO2 < 90%); pCO2 ≤ 40mmHg “parenchymal insufficiency” or “partial insufficiency”;

                   

® Type II insufficiency: Hypoxemia with elevated CO2:
pO2 < 60mm Hg (SaO2 < 90%); pCO2 >44mmHg “ventilatory insufficiency” or “global insufficiency”

                                       

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

What are possible reasons for exercise induced dyspnea? 

                                                                       

Heart disease, Lung disease, Blood disease, Neurologic disease, Muscle disease, Chest deformation (Kyphoscoliosis), Detraining after disease, Detraining due to sedentary lifestyle;

                                                           

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

What are characteristics of a tumor? 

                                                                       

- derives from normal tissue that degenerates - looks similar to normal tissue
- shows unlimited growth
- ignores borders and grows into tissue              

- needs a lot of energy and weakens the body
- builds his own blood supply, own vessels
- Systemic effects: concern the whole body, weight loss, fatigue, change in skin coloration,

thrombosis, embolism, blood is clotted in the vessel, ...

                                                           

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

Benign / semi-malignant / malignant tumors are ? 

                                               

® Benign tumors: grow by pushing normal tissue aside; produce no metastases; 

® Semi-malignant tumors: grow by infiltrating surrounding tissue; no metastases; 

® Malignant tumors: grow by infiltrating surrounding tissue + metastases;

                                       

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

Tumor: grading vs staging? 

                                               

Grading: how evil is the tumor? -> Well differentiated, moderately differentiated, poorly differentiated.

                   

Staging: how advanced is the tumor? TNM system (tumor, lymph nodes, metastasis)

                                       

B01 - Strategies in Health Sciences

Modern management of tumor patients? 

                                               

Modern Management of Tumor Patients: Patients are presented at a tumor-board conference. At this meeting all specialists discuss the best treatment strategy. Members: pathologist, oncologist, surgeon, radio-oncologist, ... an interdisciplinary approach is tailored to the individual patient.

                                       

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