Biology at Medical University Varna | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Biology an der Medical University Varna

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What is life?

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Life is a particular set of processes that result from the organization of matter

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First Cross



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  •  True-breeding purple x true-breeding white

> All offspring are purple

> The parent lines are the P generation

> the offspring are the F1 (first filial) generation

  • All the F1's are purple regardless of which parent was purple and which was white
  • Note: no blending occurs

> purple F1 plants look exactly like the purple parentals

> Purple is dominant because it appears in the F1 hybrid

> White is recessive because it does not appear in the F1 hybrid

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Genocopies

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•A genocopy refers to situation when identical phenotype is produced by two different genes / genotypes

• Ex.: Inherited deafness of genocopy as mutation of any of the dozens of genes critical for the process of audition will lead to hearing loss

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Living things have a complex organization

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  • Organisms are complex:
  • – from the levels of atoms, molecules to those of cells, tissues, and entire organisms 
  • – not found in the nonliving word
  • Organisms life depends on the maintenance of this complex organization
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Living things reproduce

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  • All types of organisms generate offsprings in a process called reproduction
  • In every case the organism begets a like yg organism
  • reproduction depends: genetic information
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Living things are adapted to their environments and ways of life

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  • Every living thing is organized and functions in a way that allows it to exploit and cope with its physical surroundings
  • Such adaptation is a result of evolutionary change, the accumulation of inherited variations over time
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Living things take in and use energy

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  • continual maintenance depends absolutely on energy
  • most of which ultimately derives from the sun’s light and hot
  • energy from nutritients is released

 -> used for maintenance and for various life activities --> metabolism

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Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

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  • Unlike prokaryotes on eukaryotes expression of gene into proteins can be controlled at different locations
  • Synthesis of proteins is controlled right from the chromatin stage
  • Expression of gene is controlled at many steps during the process of transcription and translation
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Living things grow and develop

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  • most important activities supported by metabolism is growth

= an increase in mass, size, or organization

-> organisms become more complex and take on a series of new forms

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Human Races

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= A large group of people with common source areal, a common origin, similar morphological and physiological traits can be crossed and give fertile generation

  • Race is not variety 
  • Race and ethnos is not one and the same
  • The nation is a group of ethnoses
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The first cells


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• The first cells were in all probably anaerobic

and heterotrophic

(unable to make organic nutrients from simple inorganic precursors)

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Steps Needed to Produce Life from Inorganic Materials

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  • The simplest forms of life today consist of an outer membrane that separates the cell from its surroundings, genetic material in the form of nucleic acids and many kinds of enzymes that control the  activities of the cell

1. Organic molecules must first be formed from inorganic molecules.

2. Basic organic molecules form RNA that can serve as the genetic material and to catalyze other reactions.

3. RNA becomes self-replicating.

4. The organic RNA molecules must be collected together and segregated from other molecules by a membrane.

5. The control of protein synthesis must be taken over by RNA.

6. Proteins become the catalysts (enzymes) of the cell.

7. DNA replaces RNA as the self-replicating genetic material of the cell.

8. Ultimately these first cellular units must be able to reproduce more of themselves.

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Q:

What is life?

A:

Life is a particular set of processes that result from the organization of matter

Q:

First Cross



A:
  •  True-breeding purple x true-breeding white

> All offspring are purple

> The parent lines are the P generation

> the offspring are the F1 (first filial) generation

  • All the F1's are purple regardless of which parent was purple and which was white
  • Note: no blending occurs

> purple F1 plants look exactly like the purple parentals

> Purple is dominant because it appears in the F1 hybrid

> White is recessive because it does not appear in the F1 hybrid

Q:

Genocopies

A:

•A genocopy refers to situation when identical phenotype is produced by two different genes / genotypes

• Ex.: Inherited deafness of genocopy as mutation of any of the dozens of genes critical for the process of audition will lead to hearing loss

Q:

Living things have a complex organization

A:
  • Organisms are complex:
  • – from the levels of atoms, molecules to those of cells, tissues, and entire organisms 
  • – not found in the nonliving word
  • Organisms life depends on the maintenance of this complex organization
Q:

Living things reproduce

A:
  • All types of organisms generate offsprings in a process called reproduction
  • In every case the organism begets a like yg organism
  • reproduction depends: genetic information
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Living things are adapted to their environments and ways of life

A:
  • Every living thing is organized and functions in a way that allows it to exploit and cope with its physical surroundings
  • Such adaptation is a result of evolutionary change, the accumulation of inherited variations over time
Q:

Living things take in and use energy

A:
  • continual maintenance depends absolutely on energy
  • most of which ultimately derives from the sun’s light and hot
  • energy from nutritients is released

 -> used for maintenance and for various life activities --> metabolism

Q:

Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

A:
  • Unlike prokaryotes on eukaryotes expression of gene into proteins can be controlled at different locations
  • Synthesis of proteins is controlled right from the chromatin stage
  • Expression of gene is controlled at many steps during the process of transcription and translation
Q:

Living things grow and develop

A:
  • most important activities supported by metabolism is growth

= an increase in mass, size, or organization

-> organisms become more complex and take on a series of new forms

Q:

Human Races

A:

= A large group of people with common source areal, a common origin, similar morphological and physiological traits can be crossed and give fertile generation

  • Race is not variety 
  • Race and ethnos is not one and the same
  • The nation is a group of ethnoses
Q:

The first cells


A:

• The first cells were in all probably anaerobic

and heterotrophic

(unable to make organic nutrients from simple inorganic precursors)

Q:

Steps Needed to Produce Life from Inorganic Materials

A:
  • The simplest forms of life today consist of an outer membrane that separates the cell from its surroundings, genetic material in the form of nucleic acids and many kinds of enzymes that control the  activities of the cell

1. Organic molecules must first be formed from inorganic molecules.

2. Basic organic molecules form RNA that can serve as the genetic material and to catalyze other reactions.

3. RNA becomes self-replicating.

4. The organic RNA molecules must be collected together and segregated from other molecules by a membrane.

5. The control of protein synthesis must be taken over by RNA.

6. Proteins become the catalysts (enzymes) of the cell.

7. DNA replaces RNA as the self-replicating genetic material of the cell.

8. Ultimately these first cellular units must be able to reproduce more of themselves.

Biology

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