Surgery at Medical University Pleven | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Surgery an der Medical University Pleven

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Where can antimicrobials be used?

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on the skin or tissue to decrease risk of infection

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Causes of Congenital diseases?

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3 factors:

  • Genetical Factors:  through inheritance from one parent, very rarely from both
  • Progenic Factors: impaired gamete maturation process
  • Paragenic Factors: Not caused by genetic factors - mainly include environmental factors- Physical, chemical, biological
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Some Historical Data about Antisepsis?


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  • Ignaz Semmelweis and Oliver Wendel Homlmes - theory of particles clinging onto the cadavers- ichorous discharge originating in living organism 
  • Joseph Lister-  performed first antiseptic surgery- also proposed idea about sterile bandages
  • Ernest Von Bergman - proposed sterilization with hot water


  •                     

                                       

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Define Hydrocephalus? AND types

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Presence of large volumes of CSF in subarachnoid space & cerebral ventricular spaces


  1. Internal (Non-communicating): blockage of Magendi, Luschka and Monroe foramen - Narrowing of cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius or Arnold Chiari Malformation-downward protrusion of cerebellum blocking foramen Magnum
  2. External (Intercommunicating):   Overproduction of CSF by choroid plexus with slow reabsorption

Can be caused by absence of subarachnoid villi 

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Antiseptic use? - 2 types?

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Prophylactic systemic antibiotics

Prophylactic antibiotics

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Cleft Palate - Palatum Fissum


-cause

-types

-complications

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Cause: horizontal process of maxilla DOES NOT fuse to each other -one on each side


Types: incomplete, complete, unilateral, bilateral or occult (submucosal) 


Complications: Difficulty speaking, swallowing - can lead to malnutrition

risk of infections is HIGH

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Define Antisepsis? 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

use of antimicrobial solutions to get rid of microorganisms that can cause disease

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Clinical Features of Hydrocephalus?


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  • Increased Intracranial pressure
  • Enlargement of cranium- stretched scalp with dilated vessels 
  • Fontenelles are enlarged - dysfunction in development
  • Mental Retardation, spasms and seizures 
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Treatment for hydrocephalus - 2 types

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  1. Internal Hydrocele: drainage from internal ventricle to cisterna magna
  2. External hydrocele: "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt" - fluid is diverted to the peritoneum

          "Ventriculoatrial Shunt" - drainage of fluid via internal jugular vein shunt


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Spina Bifida/ Brain Hernia - cranialis

2 main types

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Frontal Hernia - Can be median (frontonasal)  or medial (frontorbital) 


Posterior Hernia - also called occipital hernia - bigger than frontal 


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Other types of hyrdocephalus? 

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Meningocele - when meninges are prolapsed


encephalo-meningocele - meninges along with brain tissue


encephalo-cystocele - when ventricles are also involved

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How are clefts of the face developed?

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  1. Fromation of frontonasal process - 2 olfactory pits develop - rupture and form pharynx and nostrils
  2. Maxillary Processes - fuse with frontonasal process - form upper lip, jaw and palate
  3. Mandibular Processes - meet in midline to form lower jaw


  • Maxillary processes continue to grow medially - fuse with medial nasal prominance - bringing nostrils closer together


  • Failure of this process by 5-6th gestational week - results in formation of cleft


 

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Q:

Where can antimicrobials be used?

A:

on the skin or tissue to decrease risk of infection

Q:

Causes of Congenital diseases?

A:

3 factors:

  • Genetical Factors:  through inheritance from one parent, very rarely from both
  • Progenic Factors: impaired gamete maturation process
  • Paragenic Factors: Not caused by genetic factors - mainly include environmental factors- Physical, chemical, biological
Q:

Some Historical Data about Antisepsis?


A:
  • Ignaz Semmelweis and Oliver Wendel Homlmes - theory of particles clinging onto the cadavers- ichorous discharge originating in living organism 
  • Joseph Lister-  performed first antiseptic surgery- also proposed idea about sterile bandages
  • Ernest Von Bergman - proposed sterilization with hot water


  •                     

                                       

Q:

Define Hydrocephalus? AND types

A:

Presence of large volumes of CSF in subarachnoid space & cerebral ventricular spaces


  1. Internal (Non-communicating): blockage of Magendi, Luschka and Monroe foramen - Narrowing of cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius or Arnold Chiari Malformation-downward protrusion of cerebellum blocking foramen Magnum
  2. External (Intercommunicating):   Overproduction of CSF by choroid plexus with slow reabsorption

Can be caused by absence of subarachnoid villi 

Q:

Antiseptic use? - 2 types?

A:

Prophylactic systemic antibiotics

Prophylactic antibiotics

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Cleft Palate - Palatum Fissum


-cause

-types

-complications

A:

Cause: horizontal process of maxilla DOES NOT fuse to each other -one on each side


Types: incomplete, complete, unilateral, bilateral or occult (submucosal) 


Complications: Difficulty speaking, swallowing - can lead to malnutrition

risk of infections is HIGH

Q:

Define Antisepsis? 

A:

use of antimicrobial solutions to get rid of microorganisms that can cause disease

Q:

Clinical Features of Hydrocephalus?


A:
  • Increased Intracranial pressure
  • Enlargement of cranium- stretched scalp with dilated vessels 
  • Fontenelles are enlarged - dysfunction in development
  • Mental Retardation, spasms and seizures 
Q:

Treatment for hydrocephalus - 2 types

A:
  1. Internal Hydrocele: drainage from internal ventricle to cisterna magna
  2. External hydrocele: "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt" - fluid is diverted to the peritoneum

          "Ventriculoatrial Shunt" - drainage of fluid via internal jugular vein shunt


Q:

Spina Bifida/ Brain Hernia - cranialis

2 main types

A:

Frontal Hernia - Can be median (frontonasal)  or medial (frontorbital) 


Posterior Hernia - also called occipital hernia - bigger than frontal 


Q:

Other types of hyrdocephalus? 

A:

Meningocele - when meninges are prolapsed


encephalo-meningocele - meninges along with brain tissue


encephalo-cystocele - when ventricles are also involved

Q:

How are clefts of the face developed?

A:
  1. Fromation of frontonasal process - 2 olfactory pits develop - rupture and form pharynx and nostrils
  2. Maxillary Processes - fuse with frontonasal process - form upper lip, jaw and palate
  3. Mandibular Processes - meet in midline to form lower jaw


  • Maxillary processes continue to grow medially - fuse with medial nasal prominance - bringing nostrils closer together


  • Failure of this process by 5-6th gestational week - results in formation of cleft


 

Surgery

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