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How and in which time frame should Campylobacter and Cl.difficile be transported? (feces)


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- Anaerobic transport system (Port a cul) 

within 2h or stored at 2-8°C for 24h

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How do you collect urine for examination?

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1. Morning mid stream (first wash genitals, let the first few ml pass, collect sample) - 20-30ml

2. Suprapubic bladder aspiration (insert needle through skin into bladder -> if no urination possible)

​3. Urinary bladder catherization 

​-> determines localization of infection: 

bladder infection = first urine after catherization is sterile 

kidney inflammation = microorganisms in all urine 


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the cultivation methods/agars used in case of feces examination? What step can be done to obtain glucose/lactose properties?

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- Nutrient broth: to cultivate Salmonella (continue with MacConkey)

- MacConkey, Levin Agar, EMB: Salmonella, Shigella -> colourless colonies 

- Bisulfite agar: Salmonella (grows in black colonies that are coloured by the reaction of ferrous of the agar with the H2S of the Salmonella)

-Kligers Iron agar: to determine the glucose/lactose fermentation properties of the bacterium (initially red, turns yellow in case of fermentation - slant->lactose, bottom -> glucose; in case of H2S turns black)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the identification methods in case of feces examination?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1. Microscopy (gram staining to find agent)

(methylene blue stain in case of many Leukocytes: indicates invasive, non toxinemic infection)

2. Biochemical properties 

-> API (chambers filled with different enzymes)

-> VITEK2 (automated determination of bio. properties)

3. Seroidentification (we give known antibody onto slide and mix it with specimen: in case of anitgen present = Agglutination)

-> Agglutination on glass 

-> Latex agglutination

4. Bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics

-> Disk diffusion test (disks with antibiotics given onto agar with colonies -> if resistant nothing happens, if not resistant: clear circle around disc)

->E-test (determination of lowest possible concentration to fight microbes)

->VITEK2 (automated system to determine susceptibility to antibiotics)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How and in which time frame should Salmonella, Shigella and pathogenic E.coli be transported? (feces)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- in a sterile container (simple transport container or Cary blair transport) within 2h or stored at 2-8*C for 24h

​- can also be inserted in simple transport media 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the possible agents in case of infected wounds/pus formation?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Lung, brain, abdominal abcess

-> anaerobic: B. fragilis

-> Gr+ cocci: S.aureus, S. pyogenes

- Traumatic open wounds;

->Cl.perfringens, Cl. tetani

- Surgical wounds:

-> S. aureus

- Cat and dog bites:

-> Pasteurella multocida

- Human bites:

-> oral microbiota 


​- can be mono-, association and anaerobic microrganisms

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How are causative agents of urine cultured? What tests are added for detection of specific characteristics?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Culture at 37°C for 24-48h on:

-Blood agar (S. saprophyticus)

-MacConkey (E.coli -> turn from red to pink because of pH change)


Additionally:

- Kligers Iron agar: to determine the glucose/lactose fermentation properties of the bacterium (initially red, turns yellow in case of fermentation - slant->lactose, bottom -> glucose)

- Motility test in semiliquid media

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How is urine transported and what is Quantitative testing?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Transported in simple transport container or urotube in 2h (better in 1h) 

- Can be stored at 4°C for 18h 


Quantative testing:

- Microscopic: 1ml urine 

if 75-95% of vision field is filled with bacteria: 10^5/ml

if 50% of vision field is filled with bacteria: 10^4/ml 

- Bacteriologic examination (urotube)

1ml urine

->10^5/ml of one species = positive, causative agent found

->10^5/ml of various species= not trustworthy, repeat

->10^4/ml of one species = not trustworthy, repeat

->10^4/ml of various species= negative 


In case of clinical manifestations 10^2 can be considered serious indicator


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the possible causative agents for urinary tract infections?


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E.coli and S. saprophyticus

often:

Enterobacter

Proteus mirabilis

Enterococus faecalis

less often:

S. aureus

S. epidermidis

S. pyogenes

​Mycoplasma 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the identification methods in case of urine examination?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1. Microscopy (gram staining to find agent)


2. Biochemical properties 

-> API (chambers filled with different enzymes)

-> VITEK2 (automated determination of bio. properties)


3. Seroidentification (we give known antibody onto slide and mix it with specimen: in case of anitgen present = Agglutination)

-> Agglutination on glass 

-> Latex agglutination


4. Bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics

-> Disk diffusion test (disks with antibiotics given onto agar with colonies -> if resistant nothing happens, if not resistant: clear circle around disc)

->E-test (determination of lowest possible concentration to fight microbes)

->VITEK2 (automated system to determine susceptibility to antibiotics)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What can be less possible (other) causative agents for feces examination?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

​Microorganisms: Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Bac. cereus, Pseudomonas

Viruses: Rota-, Adeno-, ECHO-, Koksaki

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

​What are the most possible causative agents in case of feces examination?

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Most common: Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter

Less common: Pathogenic E.coli, Cl. difficile


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Q:

How and in which time frame should Campylobacter and Cl.difficile be transported? (feces)


A:

- Anaerobic transport system (Port a cul) 

within 2h or stored at 2-8°C for 24h

Q:

How do you collect urine for examination?

A:

1. Morning mid stream (first wash genitals, let the first few ml pass, collect sample) - 20-30ml

2. Suprapubic bladder aspiration (insert needle through skin into bladder -> if no urination possible)

​3. Urinary bladder catherization 

​-> determines localization of infection: 

bladder infection = first urine after catherization is sterile 

kidney inflammation = microorganisms in all urine 


Q:

What are the cultivation methods/agars used in case of feces examination? What step can be done to obtain glucose/lactose properties?

A:

- Nutrient broth: to cultivate Salmonella (continue with MacConkey)

- MacConkey, Levin Agar, EMB: Salmonella, Shigella -> colourless colonies 

- Bisulfite agar: Salmonella (grows in black colonies that are coloured by the reaction of ferrous of the agar with the H2S of the Salmonella)

-Kligers Iron agar: to determine the glucose/lactose fermentation properties of the bacterium (initially red, turns yellow in case of fermentation - slant->lactose, bottom -> glucose; in case of H2S turns black)

Q:

What are the identification methods in case of feces examination?


A:

1. Microscopy (gram staining to find agent)

(methylene blue stain in case of many Leukocytes: indicates invasive, non toxinemic infection)

2. Biochemical properties 

-> API (chambers filled with different enzymes)

-> VITEK2 (automated determination of bio. properties)

3. Seroidentification (we give known antibody onto slide and mix it with specimen: in case of anitgen present = Agglutination)

-> Agglutination on glass 

-> Latex agglutination

4. Bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics

-> Disk diffusion test (disks with antibiotics given onto agar with colonies -> if resistant nothing happens, if not resistant: clear circle around disc)

->E-test (determination of lowest possible concentration to fight microbes)

->VITEK2 (automated system to determine susceptibility to antibiotics)

Q:

How and in which time frame should Salmonella, Shigella and pathogenic E.coli be transported? (feces)

A:

- in a sterile container (simple transport container or Cary blair transport) within 2h or stored at 2-8*C for 24h

​- can also be inserted in simple transport media 

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are the possible agents in case of infected wounds/pus formation?


A:

- Lung, brain, abdominal abcess

-> anaerobic: B. fragilis

-> Gr+ cocci: S.aureus, S. pyogenes

- Traumatic open wounds;

->Cl.perfringens, Cl. tetani

- Surgical wounds:

-> S. aureus

- Cat and dog bites:

-> Pasteurella multocida

- Human bites:

-> oral microbiota 


​- can be mono-, association and anaerobic microrganisms

Q:

How are causative agents of urine cultured? What tests are added for detection of specific characteristics?


A:

Culture at 37°C for 24-48h on:

-Blood agar (S. saprophyticus)

-MacConkey (E.coli -> turn from red to pink because of pH change)


Additionally:

- Kligers Iron agar: to determine the glucose/lactose fermentation properties of the bacterium (initially red, turns yellow in case of fermentation - slant->lactose, bottom -> glucose)

- Motility test in semiliquid media

Q:

How is urine transported and what is Quantitative testing?

A:

- Transported in simple transport container or urotube in 2h (better in 1h) 

- Can be stored at 4°C for 18h 


Quantative testing:

- Microscopic: 1ml urine 

if 75-95% of vision field is filled with bacteria: 10^5/ml

if 50% of vision field is filled with bacteria: 10^4/ml 

- Bacteriologic examination (urotube)

1ml urine

->10^5/ml of one species = positive, causative agent found

->10^5/ml of various species= not trustworthy, repeat

->10^4/ml of one species = not trustworthy, repeat

->10^4/ml of various species= negative 


In case of clinical manifestations 10^2 can be considered serious indicator


Q:

What are the possible causative agents for urinary tract infections?


A:

E.coli and S. saprophyticus

often:

Enterobacter

Proteus mirabilis

Enterococus faecalis

less often:

S. aureus

S. epidermidis

S. pyogenes

​Mycoplasma 

Q:

What are the identification methods in case of urine examination?

A:

1. Microscopy (gram staining to find agent)


2. Biochemical properties 

-> API (chambers filled with different enzymes)

-> VITEK2 (automated determination of bio. properties)


3. Seroidentification (we give known antibody onto slide and mix it with specimen: in case of anitgen present = Agglutination)

-> Agglutination on glass 

-> Latex agglutination


4. Bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics

-> Disk diffusion test (disks with antibiotics given onto agar with colonies -> if resistant nothing happens, if not resistant: clear circle around disc)

->E-test (determination of lowest possible concentration to fight microbes)

->VITEK2 (automated system to determine susceptibility to antibiotics)

Q:

What can be less possible (other) causative agents for feces examination?


A:

​Microorganisms: Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Bac. cereus, Pseudomonas

Viruses: Rota-, Adeno-, ECHO-, Koksaki

Q:

​What are the most possible causative agents in case of feces examination?

A:

Most common: Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter

Less common: Pathogenic E.coli, Cl. difficile


Diagnostics of clinical bacteriology

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