Neuro Oral. Test at Medical Academy In Wroclaw | Flashcards & Summaries

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27. reticular formation
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  • behavior and consciousness and habituation
  • serotonin
  • set of interconnected nuclei
  • located through brainstem
  • stretches from upper part of mesencephalon to lower part of medulla
  • includes ascending pathway  to cortex
  • ascending reticular activating system
  • descending pathways to spinal cord via reticulospinal truct

  • divided in 3 columns
  • raphe nuclei-serotonin mood
  • gigantocellular nuclei-motor
  • parwocellular reticular-exhalation
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6. middle ear
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  • Narrow air-filled chamber in petrous part of temporal bone

  • middle ear contents air and 3 ossicles 

  • maleus, largest ,attached to tympanic membrane 


  • incus , body and 2 process,articulate with malleus


  • stapes, smallest bone in human body , head joins incus


  • 2 muscles tensor tympani ans stapesius

  • 2 nerves chorda tympani and thympanic plexus 

  • mucosal folds and ligaments and blood vessels 


  • parts of tympanic cavity

epitympanum

mesotympanum

hypotympanum


  • medial wall

promontory

oval window 

round window

process cochlearformis


  • posterior wall

aditusad atrum

fossa includis

pyramidal eminence 

sinus tympani


  • entstachian tube

36 mm long

enters nasopharynx

lateral 1/3 bony and med . 2/3 fibrocartilage

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4. Accessory visual structures
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  • ocular muscles
    · Superior levator palpebra
    - Origin: smaller wings sphenoid
    - Insertion: sup. Tarsal plate of upper eyelid
    - Elevates upper eyelid
  • · Recti muscles: sup., inf., medial, lateral
    - Org: common tendinous ring
    - Attach sclera
  •  Obliques muscles: sup., inf.
    - Sup. Org. sphenoid bone
    - Inf. Org. orbital floor
    - Attach to sclera

  •    Eyelids
· Protection from excessive light and injury
· Maintains bubrication by distributing tears over surface of the eyeball
· Upper & lower palpebra -> btw. Palpebra fissure
. Combined at lateral & medial commissure · 5 layers: - skin & cutaneous tissue
- Orbicularis oculi muscles
- Tarsal plates
- Levator apparatus - Conjunctiva

  • Conjunctiva
-anterior part
· Thin, transparent mucous membrane
· Non-keratinized
· Goblet cells
· Highly vascularized
  • · Parts
-palpebral – firm adherent to tarsus
- Bulbar – loosely attached to underlying sclera
- Fornical – in the fornices

  • Lacrimal  apparatus
· Responsible for drainage of lacrimal fluid from orbit
· After secretion
 – fluid circulate across eye
 – accumulates in lacrimal lake
· Drains into lacrimal sac

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9. The Division of the cerebral hemispheres on the lobes and gyri
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  • cerebral cortex is divided in

  • 2 cerebral hemispheres, connected by corpus collosum

  • each of hemispheres is divided in 4 lobes

  • frontal parietal temporal and occipital

  • lobes are divided in gyri und sulci


- the left & right cerebral hemispheres form the cerebrum and are separated by the cerebral fissure (also called longitudinal fissure)

- due to gyrification/folding there are many grooves & sulci, that divide the hemispheres into lobes & gyri

- the hemispheres have a basal, superolateral & medial surface

- each hemisphere is separated by 2 major grooves:
- the lateral Fissure and the central sulcus 
-divide the hemisphere onto 4 lobes on the lat. surface

- central sulcus separates the frontal & parietal lobes

- lateral fissure separates the frontal & parietal from the temporal lobe

- an imaginary line between the preoccipital notch and the parieto-occipital sulcus
separates the occipital from the temporal & parietal lobe

- on the medial aspect of the hemispheres there is the limbic lobe

- not visible from the external view is the insula lobe/cortex, forms floor of lat. fissure
and is covered by opercula(portions) of parietal, temporal & frontal lobes
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12. diencephalon- thalamus
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Thalamus:

stop station for sensory & motor impulses (except olfactory)


● Two 4cm large ovoid masses of accumulated grey matter, one on either side of 3rd ventricle


● Are connected through interthalamic adhesion


● Each one has an anterior and posterior pole- Monroe


● The internal medullary lamina divides the thalamus roughly into anterior, mediallateral parts


● The external medullary lamina separates the basal nuclei of the Thalamus from the reticular nucleus


  • posteroventral surfacet he medial and lateral geniculate

bodies, which are responsible for auditory and visual processing


Medial wall of each thalamus forms the lateral wall of the 3rd ventricle


● The most posterior part is called the Pulvinar


● There are 3 groups of nuclei (16 nuclei altogether): 

anterior, medial and lateral nuclei

(each has ventral and dorsal nuclei)


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12. diencephalon -epithalamus
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●  posterior/superior to thalamus

● consists of

  • Habenula & Habenular commissure 

  • habenular triangle

  • posterior commissure

  • pineal body/gland secrets melatonin


● Connects limbic system to other parts of the brain


● Regulates sleep wake rhytm


● Also plays role in regulation of emotions


● The habenula (habenular nuclei) control release of dopamine and serotonin


● The stria medullaris (bundle of fibers) connects the habenular nuclei with the limbic system

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12. diencephalon- hypothalamus
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  • Lies below the Thalamus and builds the floor of the 3rd ventricle

  • Cone shaped structure that projects inferiorly towards the pituitary gland

  • Controls many functions of the autonomic system and effects the endocrine system 

  • Has 3 regions:

  • Anterior: also called supraoptic area, includes supraoptic (ADH) and paraventricular  nuclei

  • Middle: contains ventromedial & arcuate nuclei

  • Posterior: contains posterior hypothalamic and mammilary nuclei



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12. diencephalon- subthalamus
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● the part of the diencephalon that lies below the posterior part of the thalamus 

  • just behind and lateral to the hypothalamus

● Borders: Sup. Thalamus, Inf.& medially Hypothalamus, Lat. Internal Capsule
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13.  cerebral ventricular system
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ventricular system is a set of communicating cavities within the brain

· structures that produce cerebrospinal fluid, and transport it around the cranial cavity


  • In total, there are four ventricles; right and left lateral ventricles, third ventricle and fourth ventricle


  •  lateral ventricle

left and right lateral ventricles are located within their respective hemispheres of the cerebrum

· ‘horns’ into the frontal, occipital and temporal lobes


  • third ventricle

lateral ventricles connected to the third ventricle by the foramen of Monro situated in between the right and the left thalamus

  • supra-optic recess

  • infundibular recess


  • fourth ventricle


receives CSF from the third ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct

lies within the brainstem, at the junction between the pons and medulla oblongata


  • drains into two places

central spinal canal

subarachnoid cisterns

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15. nuclei of cranial nerve III oculomotor
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  • from mesencephalon
  • 2 nuclei- oculomotor (motor) and erdinger westpal
  • oculomotor-from sup. colliculus
  • striated muscle control, extra ocular muscles
  • Erdinger Westpal-parasympathetic fibers
  • ciliary muscle and pupil muscle

what are cranial nerves and what composed of ?

  • cranial nerve nucleus is collection of neurons gray mater in brainstem
  • is assosiated with 2 or more cranial nerves
  • motor nuclei-closer to front - ventral
  • sensory nuclei and neurons - closer to back - dorsal
  • fibers arise from nucleus in midbrain
  • pass toward tegmentum-red nucleus-med.part of substancia nigra

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nucleus of trochlear nerve IV
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    • cranial nerve nucleus is collection of neurons gray mater in brainstem
    • is assosiated with 2 or more cranial nerves
    • motor nuclei-closer to front - ventral
    • sensory nuclei and neurons - closer to back - dorsal

  • in the midbrain
  • TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS
  • INNERVATE OBLIQUE MUSCLES MOVEMENT OF EYE
  • between the superior colliculus and inferior colliculus
  • · motor nucleus
  • longitudinal fasciculus
  • · oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve are the only two cranial nerves with nuclei in the midbrain
  • goes around the midbrain, and is visible coming out of the sides
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16. nuclei of cranial nerve V
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Trigeminal nerve nuclei


  • extend through the whole of the midbrain

  • TRIGEMINAL NUCLEI MOTOR 

innervates the muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor veli palatini, and tensor tympani


  • divided into 3 parts of sensory in midbrain,pons and medulla


  • 1.mesencephalic nucleus

- is involved with reflex proprioception of the periodontium and of the muscles of mastication in the jaw that functions to prevent biting down hard enough to lose a tooth


  • 2. chief sensory nucleus

- group of second-order neurons which have cell bodies in the caudal pons


  • 3. spinal trigeminal nucleus

-nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain,

and temperature from the ipsilateral face

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Q:
27. reticular formation
A:
  • behavior and consciousness and habituation
  • serotonin
  • set of interconnected nuclei
  • located through brainstem
  • stretches from upper part of mesencephalon to lower part of medulla
  • includes ascending pathway  to cortex
  • ascending reticular activating system
  • descending pathways to spinal cord via reticulospinal truct

  • divided in 3 columns
  • raphe nuclei-serotonin mood
  • gigantocellular nuclei-motor
  • parwocellular reticular-exhalation
Q:
6. middle ear
A:
  • Narrow air-filled chamber in petrous part of temporal bone

  • middle ear contents air and 3 ossicles 

  • maleus, largest ,attached to tympanic membrane 


  • incus , body and 2 process,articulate with malleus


  • stapes, smallest bone in human body , head joins incus


  • 2 muscles tensor tympani ans stapesius

  • 2 nerves chorda tympani and thympanic plexus 

  • mucosal folds and ligaments and blood vessels 


  • parts of tympanic cavity

epitympanum

mesotympanum

hypotympanum


  • medial wall

promontory

oval window 

round window

process cochlearformis


  • posterior wall

aditusad atrum

fossa includis

pyramidal eminence 

sinus tympani


  • entstachian tube

36 mm long

enters nasopharynx

lateral 1/3 bony and med . 2/3 fibrocartilage

Q:
4. Accessory visual structures
A:
  • ocular muscles
    · Superior levator palpebra
    - Origin: smaller wings sphenoid
    - Insertion: sup. Tarsal plate of upper eyelid
    - Elevates upper eyelid
  • · Recti muscles: sup., inf., medial, lateral
    - Org: common tendinous ring
    - Attach sclera
  •  Obliques muscles: sup., inf.
    - Sup. Org. sphenoid bone
    - Inf. Org. orbital floor
    - Attach to sclera

  •    Eyelids
· Protection from excessive light and injury
· Maintains bubrication by distributing tears over surface of the eyeball
· Upper & lower palpebra -> btw. Palpebra fissure
. Combined at lateral & medial commissure · 5 layers: - skin & cutaneous tissue
- Orbicularis oculi muscles
- Tarsal plates
- Levator apparatus - Conjunctiva

  • Conjunctiva
-anterior part
· Thin, transparent mucous membrane
· Non-keratinized
· Goblet cells
· Highly vascularized
  • · Parts
-palpebral – firm adherent to tarsus
- Bulbar – loosely attached to underlying sclera
- Fornical – in the fornices

  • Lacrimal  apparatus
· Responsible for drainage of lacrimal fluid from orbit
· After secretion
 – fluid circulate across eye
 – accumulates in lacrimal lake
· Drains into lacrimal sac

Q:
9. The Division of the cerebral hemispheres on the lobes and gyri
A:
  • cerebral cortex is divided in

  • 2 cerebral hemispheres, connected by corpus collosum

  • each of hemispheres is divided in 4 lobes

  • frontal parietal temporal and occipital

  • lobes are divided in gyri und sulci


- the left & right cerebral hemispheres form the cerebrum and are separated by the cerebral fissure (also called longitudinal fissure)

- due to gyrification/folding there are many grooves & sulci, that divide the hemispheres into lobes & gyri

- the hemispheres have a basal, superolateral & medial surface

- each hemisphere is separated by 2 major grooves:
- the lateral Fissure and the central sulcus 
-divide the hemisphere onto 4 lobes on the lat. surface

- central sulcus separates the frontal & parietal lobes

- lateral fissure separates the frontal & parietal from the temporal lobe

- an imaginary line between the preoccipital notch and the parieto-occipital sulcus
separates the occipital from the temporal & parietal lobe

- on the medial aspect of the hemispheres there is the limbic lobe

- not visible from the external view is the insula lobe/cortex, forms floor of lat. fissure
and is covered by opercula(portions) of parietal, temporal & frontal lobes
Q:
12. diencephalon- thalamus
A:

Thalamus:

stop station for sensory & motor impulses (except olfactory)


● Two 4cm large ovoid masses of accumulated grey matter, one on either side of 3rd ventricle


● Are connected through interthalamic adhesion


● Each one has an anterior and posterior pole- Monroe


● The internal medullary lamina divides the thalamus roughly into anterior, mediallateral parts


● The external medullary lamina separates the basal nuclei of the Thalamus from the reticular nucleus


  • posteroventral surfacet he medial and lateral geniculate

bodies, which are responsible for auditory and visual processing


Medial wall of each thalamus forms the lateral wall of the 3rd ventricle


● The most posterior part is called the Pulvinar


● There are 3 groups of nuclei (16 nuclei altogether): 

anterior, medial and lateral nuclei

(each has ventral and dorsal nuclei)


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Q:
12. diencephalon -epithalamus
A:

●  posterior/superior to thalamus

● consists of

  • Habenula & Habenular commissure 

  • habenular triangle

  • posterior commissure

  • pineal body/gland secrets melatonin


● Connects limbic system to other parts of the brain


● Regulates sleep wake rhytm


● Also plays role in regulation of emotions


● The habenula (habenular nuclei) control release of dopamine and serotonin


● The stria medullaris (bundle of fibers) connects the habenular nuclei with the limbic system

Q:
12. diencephalon- hypothalamus
A:
  • Lies below the Thalamus and builds the floor of the 3rd ventricle

  • Cone shaped structure that projects inferiorly towards the pituitary gland

  • Controls many functions of the autonomic system and effects the endocrine system 

  • Has 3 regions:

  • Anterior: also called supraoptic area, includes supraoptic (ADH) and paraventricular  nuclei

  • Middle: contains ventromedial & arcuate nuclei

  • Posterior: contains posterior hypothalamic and mammilary nuclei



Q:
12. diencephalon- subthalamus
A:
● the part of the diencephalon that lies below the posterior part of the thalamus 

  • just behind and lateral to the hypothalamus

● Borders: Sup. Thalamus, Inf.& medially Hypothalamus, Lat. Internal Capsule
Q:
13.  cerebral ventricular system
A:

ventricular system is a set of communicating cavities within the brain

· structures that produce cerebrospinal fluid, and transport it around the cranial cavity


  • In total, there are four ventricles; right and left lateral ventricles, third ventricle and fourth ventricle


  •  lateral ventricle

left and right lateral ventricles are located within their respective hemispheres of the cerebrum

· ‘horns’ into the frontal, occipital and temporal lobes


  • third ventricle

lateral ventricles connected to the third ventricle by the foramen of Monro situated in between the right and the left thalamus

  • supra-optic recess

  • infundibular recess


  • fourth ventricle


receives CSF from the third ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct

lies within the brainstem, at the junction between the pons and medulla oblongata


  • drains into two places

central spinal canal

subarachnoid cisterns

Q:
15. nuclei of cranial nerve III oculomotor
A:
  • from mesencephalon
  • 2 nuclei- oculomotor (motor) and erdinger westpal
  • oculomotor-from sup. colliculus
  • striated muscle control, extra ocular muscles
  • Erdinger Westpal-parasympathetic fibers
  • ciliary muscle and pupil muscle

what are cranial nerves and what composed of ?

  • cranial nerve nucleus is collection of neurons gray mater in brainstem
  • is assosiated with 2 or more cranial nerves
  • motor nuclei-closer to front - ventral
  • sensory nuclei and neurons - closer to back - dorsal
  • fibers arise from nucleus in midbrain
  • pass toward tegmentum-red nucleus-med.part of substancia nigra

Q:
nucleus of trochlear nerve IV
A:

    • cranial nerve nucleus is collection of neurons gray mater in brainstem
    • is assosiated with 2 or more cranial nerves
    • motor nuclei-closer to front - ventral
    • sensory nuclei and neurons - closer to back - dorsal

  • in the midbrain
  • TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS
  • INNERVATE OBLIQUE MUSCLES MOVEMENT OF EYE
  • between the superior colliculus and inferior colliculus
  • · motor nucleus
  • longitudinal fasciculus
  • · oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve are the only two cranial nerves with nuclei in the midbrain
  • goes around the midbrain, and is visible coming out of the sides
Q:
16. nuclei of cranial nerve V
A:

Trigeminal nerve nuclei


  • extend through the whole of the midbrain

  • TRIGEMINAL NUCLEI MOTOR 

innervates the muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor veli palatini, and tensor tympani


  • divided into 3 parts of sensory in midbrain,pons and medulla


  • 1.mesencephalic nucleus

- is involved with reflex proprioception of the periodontium and of the muscles of mastication in the jaw that functions to prevent biting down hard enough to lose a tooth


  • 2. chief sensory nucleus

- group of second-order neurons which have cell bodies in the caudal pons


  • 3. spinal trigeminal nucleus

-nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain,

and temperature from the ipsilateral face

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