Anatomy Bros at McMaster University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Anatomy Bros an der McMaster University

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What is the right path of the blood in the heart?

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The deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cava. It passes the right AV valve into the right ventricle. It then proceeds to send it to the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary valve, where the blood enters the lungs to get oxygenated.

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What are the 8 major kidney functions?

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1- regulates body pH.

2- regulates blood ionic composition (water vs dissolved).

3- Regulates blood volume (water content).

4- regulates blood pressure (RAA-pathway).

5- maintains blood osmolarity (300mOsm/L).

6- produces hormones (Vit-D, Erythropoietin).

7-regulates blood glucose (gluconeogenesis).

8- excretes wastes.

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What is tachypnea?

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It is abnormally rapid shallow breathing.

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What is the left path of the blood in the heart?

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Oxygenated blood enters the heart from the pulmonary vein, into the left atrium and through the left AV valve into the left ventricle. It travels through the aortic valve (mitral valve) into the aorta and the whole body.

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Which valves have cordae tendineae?

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The left and right AV valves. These will pull on the valves so that they don't allow blood backflow into the atriums. They get pulled on by papillary muscles.

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What is the cardiac conduction pathway?

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The SA node sends a signal to the atriums to contract and to the AV node that sends it down to the Bundle of His and the Purkinje fibres, making the ventricles contract.

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What happens during an ECG?

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P- Depolarization of the atriums, right after is the contraction of the atria

QRS- Depolarization of the ventricles, message for contraction of the ventricles to happen right after. Repolarization of the atriums

T- repolarization of the ventricles 

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What is the zona pellucida?

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It is the egg layer that the sperm has to break through for fertilization.

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What causes ovulation?

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A spike in estrogen.

Low estrogen levels cause LH and FSH to be released. LH will produce estrogen. Estrogen will create a positive feedback loop leading to a spike in estrogen.

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What are the layers of the heart?

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Epicardium- Outer layer.

Myocardium- The heart muscle, 95% of the heart, striated involuntary.

Endocardium- Inside of the heart.

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What are the purposes of gap junctions and desmosomes in the heart muscle?

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Desmosomes keep the heart glued together, and gap junctions allow it to contract together.

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What is the pathway of the nephron?

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The afferent arteriole brings blood to the glomerulus. The bowman's capsule absorbs water, ions, and glucose, leading it to the proximal convoluted tubule. The proximal convoluted tubule flows into the loop of Henle, which descends into the medulla of the kidney and flows back up into the distal convoluted tubule, which leads to the collecting duct, then the renal pelvis then the ureter, then the bladder, then the urethra then the toilet. 

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Q:

What is the right path of the blood in the heart?

A:

The deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cava. It passes the right AV valve into the right ventricle. It then proceeds to send it to the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary valve, where the blood enters the lungs to get oxygenated.

Q:

What are the 8 major kidney functions?

A:

1- regulates body pH.

2- regulates blood ionic composition (water vs dissolved).

3- Regulates blood volume (water content).

4- regulates blood pressure (RAA-pathway).

5- maintains blood osmolarity (300mOsm/L).

6- produces hormones (Vit-D, Erythropoietin).

7-regulates blood glucose (gluconeogenesis).

8- excretes wastes.

Q:

What is tachypnea?

A:

It is abnormally rapid shallow breathing.

Q:

What is the left path of the blood in the heart?

A:

Oxygenated blood enters the heart from the pulmonary vein, into the left atrium and through the left AV valve into the left ventricle. It travels through the aortic valve (mitral valve) into the aorta and the whole body.

Q:

Which valves have cordae tendineae?

A:

The left and right AV valves. These will pull on the valves so that they don't allow blood backflow into the atriums. They get pulled on by papillary muscles.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What is the cardiac conduction pathway?

A:

The SA node sends a signal to the atriums to contract and to the AV node that sends it down to the Bundle of His and the Purkinje fibres, making the ventricles contract.

Q:

What happens during an ECG?

A:

P- Depolarization of the atriums, right after is the contraction of the atria

QRS- Depolarization of the ventricles, message for contraction of the ventricles to happen right after. Repolarization of the atriums

T- repolarization of the ventricles 

Q:

What is the zona pellucida?

A:

It is the egg layer that the sperm has to break through for fertilization.

Q:

What causes ovulation?

A:

A spike in estrogen.

Low estrogen levels cause LH and FSH to be released. LH will produce estrogen. Estrogen will create a positive feedback loop leading to a spike in estrogen.

Q:

What are the layers of the heart?

A:

Epicardium- Outer layer.

Myocardium- The heart muscle, 95% of the heart, striated involuntary.

Endocardium- Inside of the heart.

Q:

What are the purposes of gap junctions and desmosomes in the heart muscle?

A:

Desmosomes keep the heart glued together, and gap junctions allow it to contract together.

Q:

What is the pathway of the nephron?

A:

The afferent arteriole brings blood to the glomerulus. The bowman's capsule absorbs water, ions, and glucose, leading it to the proximal convoluted tubule. The proximal convoluted tubule flows into the loop of Henle, which descends into the medulla of the kidney and flows back up into the distal convoluted tubule, which leads to the collecting duct, then the renal pelvis then the ureter, then the bladder, then the urethra then the toilet. 

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