EMBRYOLOGY at Madonna University | Flashcards & Summaries

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What is embryology

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study of formation, 

early growth, 

development of living organisms.

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Explain the stage of Prometaphase
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Chromatids at the prometaphase are bundled tightly enough to become visible. Small organelles called centrioles migrate to the opposite sides of the cell
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Explain the stage of Prophase
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During the replication of the cell DNA, the chromosome becomes extremely long and spread briefly through the nucleus
The chromosomes begin to coil, contact and condense when mitosis begins; these activities signal the start of Prophase.
Each chromosome now has two parallel subunits, or chromatids, which are connected to the centromere, a thin section that is common to both. 
The chromosome continues to condense, shorten, and thicken during prophase but the chromatids do not become distinguishable until Prometaphase.
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What are the stages of Mitosis 
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  • Prophase
  • Prometaphase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase 
  • Cytokinesis
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Explain the Anaphase Stage 
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Centrometres split, and centrioles yanked one of the chromatids from each pair to the cell's opposite side. In the next interphase, each chromatid will be replicated as a daughter chromosome
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What is Meiosis?
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This is the cell division that occurs in the germ cells to generate male and female gametes; sperm and egg cells respectively.
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Explain the Metaphase stage 
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As the nuclear membrane scatters, chromosomes lines up in the cells center. The centrosomes are connected to each chromatid by a network of microtubules known as spindle fibers 
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What is Spermatozoa 
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Spermatozoa is the production of male gametes 

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What are Gonads 
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Gonads is the organ that produces gametes; ovary or testes.
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Explain what happens in the somatic cells 

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In the somatic cells; chromosomes appear as 23 homologous pairs to form a diploid number of 46
There are 22 pair of matching chromosomes i.e. autosomes.
And one pair of the sex chromosomes, thereby making it 23 chromosomes!
The sex chromosomes are XX ( genetic females), XY ( genetic males).

One of the sex chromosome is gotten crom the oocyte and one from the paternal gamete (the sperm).
Each gamete contain a haploid number of 23 chromosomes ( 23 from the male and 23 from the female) until their union during fertilization restores it back to the diploid number of 46
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When does Development begin??
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Development begins at fertilization
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What is Mitosis??
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It is the process whereby one cell divides giving rise to two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell

  • The daughter cell receives all 46 chromosomes in it completely
  • Before mitosis each cell replicates ut DNA
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Q:


What is embryology

A:

study of formation, 

early growth, 

development of living organisms.

Q:
Explain the stage of Prometaphase
A:
Chromatids at the prometaphase are bundled tightly enough to become visible. Small organelles called centrioles migrate to the opposite sides of the cell
Q:
Explain the stage of Prophase
A:
During the replication of the cell DNA, the chromosome becomes extremely long and spread briefly through the nucleus
The chromosomes begin to coil, contact and condense when mitosis begins; these activities signal the start of Prophase.
Each chromosome now has two parallel subunits, or chromatids, which are connected to the centromere, a thin section that is common to both. 
The chromosome continues to condense, shorten, and thicken during prophase but the chromatids do not become distinguishable until Prometaphase.
Q:
What are the stages of Mitosis 
A:
  • Prophase
  • Prometaphase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase 
  • Cytokinesis
Q:
Explain the Anaphase Stage 
A:
Centrometres split, and centrioles yanked one of the chromatids from each pair to the cell's opposite side. In the next interphase, each chromatid will be replicated as a daughter chromosome
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What is Meiosis?
A:
This is the cell division that occurs in the germ cells to generate male and female gametes; sperm and egg cells respectively.
Q:
Explain the Metaphase stage 
A:
As the nuclear membrane scatters, chromosomes lines up in the cells center. The centrosomes are connected to each chromatid by a network of microtubules known as spindle fibers 
Q:
What is Spermatozoa 
A:

Spermatozoa is the production of male gametes 

Q:
What are Gonads 
A:
Gonads is the organ that produces gametes; ovary or testes.
Q:

Explain what happens in the somatic cells 

A:
In the somatic cells; chromosomes appear as 23 homologous pairs to form a diploid number of 46
There are 22 pair of matching chromosomes i.e. autosomes.
And one pair of the sex chromosomes, thereby making it 23 chromosomes!
The sex chromosomes are XX ( genetic females), XY ( genetic males).

One of the sex chromosome is gotten crom the oocyte and one from the paternal gamete (the sperm).
Each gamete contain a haploid number of 23 chromosomes ( 23 from the male and 23 from the female) until their union during fertilization restores it back to the diploid number of 46
Q:
When does Development begin??
A:
Development begins at fertilization
Q:
What is Mitosis??
A:
It is the process whereby one cell divides giving rise to two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell

  • The daughter cell receives all 46 chromosomes in it completely
  • Before mitosis each cell replicates ut DNA
EMBRYOLOGY

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