Anatomy Chapter 5: Integumentary System at MacEwan University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Stratum Basale/Germinativum Layer: 
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Deepest layer 
Contains: keratinocytes (they are columnar arranged in a single row), melanocytes, merkel/tactile cells, intermediate keratin, nuclei (large, few mitochondria) 
Function: undergo cell division to produce other layers, protection, sensation, skin pigmentation 

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Skin is an organ because: 
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It is composed of more than one tissue (connective, epithelial, nervous tissue), performs a specific function (excretion/secretion), vascular (blood vessels), innervation (nerves) 
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Melanocytes: 
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8% of epidermal cells 
Function: produce pigment melanin that protects against damage from UV radiation 
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Features of skin: 
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It is the largest organ of the body, it is apart of the integumentary system, it is made up of connective/nervous/epithelial tissues, thickness varies from one body part to another (skin on penis/vaginal fold is thinnest, skin on sole of foot is thickest), average thickness is 1-2 mm
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Epidermis: 
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Composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Contains four types of cells: keratinocytes, melanocytes, dendritic/langerhans cells, merkel/tactile epithelial cells 
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Keratinocytes: 
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85% of the epidermal cells
Function: produces keratin (fibrous intracellular protein) that protects from abrasion/heat/microbes/chemicals, produces lamellar granules that stops evaporation 
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Dermatology: 
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Branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders 
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Dendritic/langerhans cells: 
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5% of epidermal cells 
Function: involved in immune responses, alert immune system of harmful microbial invaders 
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Merkel/tactile epithelial cells: 
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Function: sensation of touch along with the adjacent tactile 
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Thermoregulation: 
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Adjusting blood flow at the dermis or sweating at the surface
High temp: eccrine sweat glands increase sweat, blood vessels dilate, more blood flows through dermis increasing heat loss
Low temp: eccrine sweat glands decrease sweat, blood vessels construct, less blood flow which decreases heat loss 
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Blood reservoir: 
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Dermis houses extensive network of blood vessels that carry 8-10% of total blood flow 
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Structure of the skin: 
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Epidermis: made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue 
Dermis: made of dense irregular connective tissues 
Hypodermis: not a true layer, contains adipose tissue, blood vessels, nerves 
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Q:
Stratum Basale/Germinativum Layer: 
A:
Deepest layer 
Contains: keratinocytes (they are columnar arranged in a single row), melanocytes, merkel/tactile cells, intermediate keratin, nuclei (large, few mitochondria) 
Function: undergo cell division to produce other layers, protection, sensation, skin pigmentation 

Q:
Skin is an organ because: 
A:
It is composed of more than one tissue (connective, epithelial, nervous tissue), performs a specific function (excretion/secretion), vascular (blood vessels), innervation (nerves) 
Q:
Melanocytes: 
A:
8% of epidermal cells 
Function: produce pigment melanin that protects against damage from UV radiation 
Q:
Features of skin: 
A:
It is the largest organ of the body, it is apart of the integumentary system, it is made up of connective/nervous/epithelial tissues, thickness varies from one body part to another (skin on penis/vaginal fold is thinnest, skin on sole of foot is thickest), average thickness is 1-2 mm
Q:
Epidermis: 
A:
Composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Contains four types of cells: keratinocytes, melanocytes, dendritic/langerhans cells, merkel/tactile epithelial cells 
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Q:
Keratinocytes: 
A:
85% of the epidermal cells
Function: produces keratin (fibrous intracellular protein) that protects from abrasion/heat/microbes/chemicals, produces lamellar granules that stops evaporation 
Q:
Dermatology: 
A:
Branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders 
Q:
Dendritic/langerhans cells: 
A:
5% of epidermal cells 
Function: involved in immune responses, alert immune system of harmful microbial invaders 
Q:
Merkel/tactile epithelial cells: 
A:
Function: sensation of touch along with the adjacent tactile 
Q:
Thermoregulation: 
A:
Adjusting blood flow at the dermis or sweating at the surface
High temp: eccrine sweat glands increase sweat, blood vessels dilate, more blood flows through dermis increasing heat loss
Low temp: eccrine sweat glands decrease sweat, blood vessels construct, less blood flow which decreases heat loss 
Q:
Blood reservoir: 
A:
Dermis houses extensive network of blood vessels that carry 8-10% of total blood flow 
Q:
Structure of the skin: 
A:
Epidermis: made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue 
Dermis: made of dense irregular connective tissues 
Hypodermis: not a true layer, contains adipose tissue, blood vessels, nerves 
Anatomy Chapter 5: Integumentary System

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