Social Behavior at Maastricht University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Social Behavior an der Maastricht University

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cognitive consistency theories

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people try to reduce inconsistency among their cognitions, because they find inconsistency unpleasant

Examples: balance theory or cognitive dissonance theory

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Positivity & Negativity Bias

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in the absence of information u assume the best of others.

any negative information attracts attention & is harder to change

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Personal constructs

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personal ways of characterizing other people (e.g. intelligence is the most important character trait for me, for you it might be humour)

-> different impressions of the same person

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Cognitive miser model
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people use the least complex & demanding cognitions that are able to produce adaptive behavior

E.g. Schemas or Attitudes
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Other biases in forming impressions:

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Physical appearance

Stereotypes

Social judgeability (perception of whether it is socially acceptable to judge a specific target)

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implicit personality theories
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personal ways of characterizing other people (what kind of characteristics go together to form certain types of personality)
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Primacy & Recency Bias
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earlier presented information has a bigger influence on final impression than later presented information

sometimes later information has more impact, e.g. when you were distracted before

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Social Encoding

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the way in which external social stimuli are represented in the mind: pre-attentive analysis, focal attention, comprehension, elaborative reasoning

salient stimuli capture attention because they are: novel or figural, don't fit prior expectations, important to your goals, dominate your visual field or you have been told to pay attention

stimuli are vivid when they are: emotionally attention - grabbing, concrete & image provoking, close in time or place

Stimuli capture attention because related categories/ schemas are accessible more easily. -> Priming

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Configural Model
Solomon Asch (1946)
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central traits have a disproportionate influence on the configuration of the final impression (e.g. because of context or biases) whereas peripheral traits have only an insignificant influence
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Availability Heuristic

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Frequency or likely hood of an event is based on how quickly instances or associations come to mind

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Social inference

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Inferental processes that we use to identify, sample and combine Information to form impressions and make judgements

2 ways in which we process information: top-down deductive fashion (Schemas or Stereotypes) or bottom-up inductive fashion (relying on specific instances)

-> behavioral decision theory: configuration model, cognitive algebra, dual-process model, continuum model, elaboration-likelyhood model, heuristic-systematic model

->normative models (ideal processes for making accurate social inferences) 

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Propositional Model of Memory

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We store propositions consisting of nodes or ideas that are linked by relationships.

The more links are activated, the stronger the association becomes
The more different links to an idea, the more likely it is to be activated

Long VS. Short term memory

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Q:

cognitive consistency theories

A:

people try to reduce inconsistency among their cognitions, because they find inconsistency unpleasant

Examples: balance theory or cognitive dissonance theory

Q:

Positivity & Negativity Bias

A:

in the absence of information u assume the best of others.

any negative information attracts attention & is harder to change

Q:

Personal constructs

A:

personal ways of characterizing other people (e.g. intelligence is the most important character trait for me, for you it might be humour)

-> different impressions of the same person

Q:
Cognitive miser model
A:
people use the least complex & demanding cognitions that are able to produce adaptive behavior

E.g. Schemas or Attitudes
Q:

Other biases in forming impressions:

A:

Physical appearance

Stereotypes

Social judgeability (perception of whether it is socially acceptable to judge a specific target)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
implicit personality theories
A:
personal ways of characterizing other people (what kind of characteristics go together to form certain types of personality)
Q:
Primacy & Recency Bias
A:
earlier presented information has a bigger influence on final impression than later presented information

sometimes later information has more impact, e.g. when you were distracted before

Q:

Social Encoding

A:

the way in which external social stimuli are represented in the mind: pre-attentive analysis, focal attention, comprehension, elaborative reasoning

salient stimuli capture attention because they are: novel or figural, don't fit prior expectations, important to your goals, dominate your visual field or you have been told to pay attention

stimuli are vivid when they are: emotionally attention - grabbing, concrete & image provoking, close in time or place

Stimuli capture attention because related categories/ schemas are accessible more easily. -> Priming

Q:
Configural Model
Solomon Asch (1946)
A:
central traits have a disproportionate influence on the configuration of the final impression (e.g. because of context or biases) whereas peripheral traits have only an insignificant influence
Q:

Availability Heuristic

A:

Frequency or likely hood of an event is based on how quickly instances or associations come to mind

Q:

Social inference

A:

Inferental processes that we use to identify, sample and combine Information to form impressions and make judgements

2 ways in which we process information: top-down deductive fashion (Schemas or Stereotypes) or bottom-up inductive fashion (relying on specific instances)

-> behavioral decision theory: configuration model, cognitive algebra, dual-process model, continuum model, elaboration-likelyhood model, heuristic-systematic model

->normative models (ideal processes for making accurate social inferences) 

Q:

Propositional Model of Memory

A:

We store propositions consisting of nodes or ideas that are linked by relationships.

The more links are activated, the stronger the association becomes
The more different links to an idea, the more likely it is to be activated

Long VS. Short term memory

Social Behavior

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