Perception at Maastricht University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Perception an der Maastricht University

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How do the eyes focus?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Accommodation (=adjustment of the lens) focuses the light rays on one point on the retina (focal point).
- constriction of the pupils prevents divergent light rays
- convergence of the eyes

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Which Neurons are present in the retina?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Photoreceptors (convert light into electrical signal)
  • bipolar cells
  • ganglion cells (integrate information from photoreceptors and their axons leave via the optic nerve)
  • amacrine cells (interneuron)
  • horizontal cells (interneuron)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the general structure of a photoreceptor?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- outer segment: disc-like layers that contain photopigment
- inner segment: contains nucleus and cell organelles 
- basal segment: synaptic terminal
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the function of the different photoreceptor?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Rods = black and white vision (light sensitive -> function in low light)
  • cones = colour vision (red, blue and green cones; less light sensitive)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the difference of photoreceptor-ganglion relationship between fovea and periphery?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Fovea: one photoreceptors innervates one bipolar cell, which innervates one ganglion cell
  • periphery: convergence of many photoreceptors into one ganglion cell
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Which types of cells are found in the primary visual cortex?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Simple cells: orientation selective (receptive fields with on/off regions)
  • complex cells: orientation selective (homogenous receptive fields)
  • hypercomplex cells: homogenous receptive fields with inhibitory flanks 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Which streams are associated with the visual association area?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Ventral stream: shape and colour perception for object identification (ventral part of the temporal lobe)
  • dorsal stream: motion perception for location of objects in space (dorsal part of parietal cortex)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the concept of lateral inhibition
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Lateral inhibition enhances the response to edges through contrast sensitivity.
- horizontal cells inhibit cells surrounding the receptive field -> more light in the surround (more Lateral inhibition) causes less contrast
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Define the concepts of top-down and bottom-up processing. 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Top-down: perception is influenced by prior knowledge 
  • bottom-up: perception is only influenced by stimulus 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the four types of eye movements?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Saccades: Rapid eye-movements (often unconscious)
  • smooth pursuit movements: slow and voluntary eye-movement
  • vergence movements: both eyes move in opposite directions
  • vestibulo-ocular movement: automatic eye-movement when only the head is moved 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How do rods and cones differ in their degree of convergence? What is the effect?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Rods: high convergence -> higher light sensitivity (but less detail)
  • cones: less convergence -> greater spatial discrimination (detail)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain the pathway from light that enters the eye until perception in the brain
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- light enters through the cornea and the lens (light rays bend)
- light Rays focus On the retina
- sensory information leave the eye via the optic nerve
- optic nerve crosses at the optic chiasm and continues as the optic tract
- optic tract synapses in the lateral geniculate body (thalamus) and terminates in the visual cortex (occipital lobe)
Lösung ausblenden
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  • 548 Studierende
  • 3 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Perception Kurs an der Maastricht University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
How do the eyes focus?
A:
- Accommodation (=adjustment of the lens) focuses the light rays on one point on the retina (focal point).
- constriction of the pupils prevents divergent light rays
- convergence of the eyes

Q:
Which Neurons are present in the retina?
A:
  • Photoreceptors (convert light into electrical signal)
  • bipolar cells
  • ganglion cells (integrate information from photoreceptors and their axons leave via the optic nerve)
  • amacrine cells (interneuron)
  • horizontal cells (interneuron)
Q:
What is the general structure of a photoreceptor?
A:
- outer segment: disc-like layers that contain photopigment
- inner segment: contains nucleus and cell organelles 
- basal segment: synaptic terminal
Q:
What is the function of the different photoreceptor?
A:
  • Rods = black and white vision (light sensitive -> function in low light)
  • cones = colour vision (red, blue and green cones; less light sensitive)
Q:
What is the difference of photoreceptor-ganglion relationship between fovea and periphery?
A:
  • Fovea: one photoreceptors innervates one bipolar cell, which innervates one ganglion cell
  • periphery: convergence of many photoreceptors into one ganglion cell
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Which types of cells are found in the primary visual cortex?
A:
  • Simple cells: orientation selective (receptive fields with on/off regions)
  • complex cells: orientation selective (homogenous receptive fields)
  • hypercomplex cells: homogenous receptive fields with inhibitory flanks 
Q:
Which streams are associated with the visual association area?
A:
  • Ventral stream: shape and colour perception for object identification (ventral part of the temporal lobe)
  • dorsal stream: motion perception for location of objects in space (dorsal part of parietal cortex)
Q:
Describe the concept of lateral inhibition
A:
Lateral inhibition enhances the response to edges through contrast sensitivity.
- horizontal cells inhibit cells surrounding the receptive field -> more light in the surround (more Lateral inhibition) causes less contrast
Q:
Define the concepts of top-down and bottom-up processing. 
A:
  • Top-down: perception is influenced by prior knowledge 
  • bottom-up: perception is only influenced by stimulus 
Q:
What are the four types of eye movements?
A:
  • Saccades: Rapid eye-movements (often unconscious)
  • smooth pursuit movements: slow and voluntary eye-movement
  • vergence movements: both eyes move in opposite directions
  • vestibulo-ocular movement: automatic eye-movement when only the head is moved 
Q:
How do rods and cones differ in their degree of convergence? What is the effect?
A:
  • Rods: high convergence -> higher light sensitivity (but less detail)
  • cones: less convergence -> greater spatial discrimination (detail)
Q:
Explain the pathway from light that enters the eye until perception in the brain
A:
- light enters through the cornea and the lens (light rays bend)
- light Rays focus On the retina
- sensory information leave the eye via the optic nerve
- optic nerve crosses at the optic chiasm and continues as the optic tract
- optic tract synapses in the lateral geniculate body (thalamus) and terminates in the visual cortex (occipital lobe)
Perception

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