Body and Behavior at Maastricht University

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Different parts of the Telencephalon

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Cerebral Cortex

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Four Lobes
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Limbic system

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Basal ganglia

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Diencephalon

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Cerebral commisures

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Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus

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Mesencephalon

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Tegmentum

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Metencephalon
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Pons

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Body and Behavior

Different parts of the Telencephalon

- Gyri, Fissures, Sulci
- Cerebral Cortex
- Four Lobes
- Limbic System
- Basal ganglia
- Ventricle system
- Cerebral commisures (biggest: Corpus callosum)

Body and Behavior

Cerebral Cortex

90% Neocortex

10% Hippocampus (3 layers, major role in some kinds of spatial memory)

- small, unmyelinated neurons-> grey matter (neurons are organized in 6 layers)

- large myelinated axons-> white matter


Body and Behavior

Four Lobes
- from anterior to posterior-> functions gets more basic (complex in the front)

- from superior/ dorsal(cortex) to inferior/ ventral(subcortical regions)-> functions gets more basic (complex on the top)

Frontal lobe:  
  • more complicated psychological processes 
  • ability to organize, personality, planning response sequences, evaluating, memory

Parietal lobe

  • the ability to read, write, understand spatial relationships, sensations from the body
  • linking sensory information to action

Temporal lobe

  • speech and comprehension, hearing and language, memory

Occipital lobe

  • processing visual information

Insula:  

  • brain is folded over
  • consciosness, self- awareness, social emotions


Body and Behavior

Limbic system

- a system of many structures

- regulation of motivated behaviors

- Circle the thalamus

- Amygdala

  • emotions espacially fear
  •  located next to the lateral ventricle in the temporal lobe

- Hippocampus

  • posterior to amygdala
  • major role in some kinds of spatial memory

- Fornix

  • bundle of tracts, links hippocampus with the hypothalamus and other structures
  • terminates in septum and the mammillary bodies

- Cingulate cortex

  • dorsal to corpus callosum

- Septum

- Mammillary bodies

  • often considered as a part of the hypothalamus

Body and Behavior

Basal ganglia

- role in the performance of voluntary motor responses and decision making

- Amygdala

- Striatum

  • long tail-like caudate connected by fibers, the putamen
  • Each caudate forms an almost complete circle; in its center, connected to it by a series of fiber bridges, is the putamen

- Globus pallidus

  • medial to the putamen between the putamen and the thalamus

- Substantia nigra (produces dopamine)

Body and Behavior

Diencephalon

- Thalamus

- Hypothalamus

- Epithalamus

- Subthalamus

- Optic chiasm

- Pituitary gland

- Retina

Body and Behavior

Cerebral commisures

- connects both hemispheres

- largest: Corpus callosum

- anterior commissure (connects temporal lobes)

- massa intermedia (joins the two lobes of the thalamus)

- cingulate gyrus (right above corpus callosum, part of limbic system)


Body and Behavior

Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus

Thalamus

  • 2 lobes, jointed by massa intermedia
  • different pairs of nuclei (e.g. sensory relay nucleus)
  • central relay station in the brain, connects almost all parts of the cortex
  • gate to consciousness
  • all sensory input filtered through Thalamus
  • Damage can cause coma
Hypothalamus
  • inferior to thalamus
  • bridge between nervous and hormone/ endocrine system
  • regulation of several motivated behaviors
  • itself also produces hormones e.g. oxytocin
  • regulating the release of hormones from the pituitary gland (hypophyse)
    • posterior part-> neurohypophyses (produce no hormons)

    • anterior part-> adenohypophyses (produces hormones, triggered by hypothalamus)

  • optic chiasm (optic nerves from each eye come together, X because they cross to each side of the hemispheres)
  • mammillary bodies
    • a pair of spherical nuclei
    • on the inferior surface of the hypothalamus, behind the pituitary

Epithalamus

- pineal gland

  • in the middle of the brain
  • ‘third eye’ (in some animals, photoreceptor, not in us)
  • Because of evolution it is covered by the frontal lobe

Body and Behavior

Mesencephalon
- Tectum
- Tegmentum

Body and Behavior

Tegmentum

- ventral to Tectum

- Reticular formation

  • An extensive region of the brainstem (extending from the medulla through the thalamus) that is involved in arousal (waking)
  • Grey matter of the brain stem

- periaqueductal gray 

  • around the cerebral aqueduct
  • connecting third& fourth ventricle

- the substantia nigra& red nucleus--> sensorimotor system

Body and Behavior

Metencephalon

- many ascending and descending tracts and part of the Reticular formation

- Pons

  • brain stem’s ventral surface
  •  connecting midbrain to medulla

- Cerebellum

  • dorsal surface of brain stem

  • important sensorimotor structure

  • Damage: liminates the ability to precisely control one’s movements, also produces a variety of cognitive deficits

Body and Behavior

Pons
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