Biopsychology at London Metropolitan University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Biopsychology an der London Metropolitan University

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What are made neurons of?
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  • Soma (most of the metabolic work)
  • Axon ( the finer of constant diameter 
  • Dendrites (branching fingers that get narrower near their ends)
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What are multipolar interneurons?
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  • The dendrites receive signals at synapses with several hundred other neurons
  • Local communication- mostly with the brain 
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Motor neurons
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  • Soma in the spinal cord 
  • Receives excitation from the other neurons through its dendrites
  • Conducts impulse along its axon to a muscle and can be a meter long 
  • Efferent neurons- information away from the brain or spinal cord 
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What are sensory neurons?
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  • Specialised to be highly sensitive to a particular type of sensory stimulation (eg touch) 
  • Sensory input -> cell body -> CNS
  • Afferent neurons - information to the brain or spinal cord 
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What are neurologlial cells? 
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  • 3 neuroglial : 1 neuron
  • Supporting cells (don’t participate in direct synaptic communication)  and ( help define synaptic contacts and maintain signalling abilities of neurons) 
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What contains the neuronal membrane ?
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  • Separate fluid inside the cell from outside 
  • Large molecules in a neurons membrane (ion pumps and ion channels) control movement of ions 
  • Movement of ions across the neuronal membrane causes electrical signals
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What are the different electrical potentials?
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  • Receptor potential 
  • Synaptic potential 
  • Action potential 
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What is the mechanism of action potential?
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  • Subthreshold depolarisation  ( triggered by various stimulation, for example synaptic input, sodium channels dilute, sodium flows in; sodium entry is less than potassium exit; sodium channel dilute further) 
  • Threshold ( membrane potential at sodium inflow= potassium outflow; a net gain of a single Na+ -> action potential)
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Myelination and Conduction Velocity 
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  • Myelination of axon (reducing current leakage; increase current passively travel distance) 
  • Nodes of Ranvier (action potential propagation; action potential only occurs at these points) 
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Chemical Communication-Afterward 
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  • Neurotransmitter- inactivated/ removed 
  • Retrieved by presynaptic receptor (up-take) -> degraded or repackaged 
  • Auto-receptors feedback to presynaptic neuron ( too much transmitter- less production and release; too little transmitters-> increase releasing)
  • Hetero-receptors( presynaptic receptor) - excitatory or inhibitory messages from other neurons-> transmitter release 
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Criteria of neurotransmitter
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  • Must be present within the presynaptic neuron 
  • Must be ca2 dependent released in response to presynaptic depolarisation 
  • Specific receptor must be present on the postsynaptic neurons 
  • Different types of neurotransmitters >100 
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What contains the Nervous System? 
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  • Central Nervous System
  • Spinal cord
  • Peripheral nervous system (which has somatic nervous system (SNS) 
  • Autonomic Nervous System ANS (which regulates internal organs of the body)
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  • 647 Karteikarten
  • 131 Studierende
  • 0 Lernmaterialien

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Q:
What are made neurons of?
A:
  • Soma (most of the metabolic work)
  • Axon ( the finer of constant diameter 
  • Dendrites (branching fingers that get narrower near their ends)
Q:
What are multipolar interneurons?
A:
  • The dendrites receive signals at synapses with several hundred other neurons
  • Local communication- mostly with the brain 
Q:
Motor neurons
A:
  • Soma in the spinal cord 
  • Receives excitation from the other neurons through its dendrites
  • Conducts impulse along its axon to a muscle and can be a meter long 
  • Efferent neurons- information away from the brain or spinal cord 
Q:
What are sensory neurons?
A:
  • Specialised to be highly sensitive to a particular type of sensory stimulation (eg touch) 
  • Sensory input -> cell body -> CNS
  • Afferent neurons - information to the brain or spinal cord 
Q:
What are neurologlial cells? 
A:
  • 3 neuroglial : 1 neuron
  • Supporting cells (don’t participate in direct synaptic communication)  and ( help define synaptic contacts and maintain signalling abilities of neurons) 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What contains the neuronal membrane ?
A:
  • Separate fluid inside the cell from outside 
  • Large molecules in a neurons membrane (ion pumps and ion channels) control movement of ions 
  • Movement of ions across the neuronal membrane causes electrical signals
Q:
What are the different electrical potentials?
A:
  • Receptor potential 
  • Synaptic potential 
  • Action potential 
Q:
What is the mechanism of action potential?
A:
  • Subthreshold depolarisation  ( triggered by various stimulation, for example synaptic input, sodium channels dilute, sodium flows in; sodium entry is less than potassium exit; sodium channel dilute further) 
  • Threshold ( membrane potential at sodium inflow= potassium outflow; a net gain of a single Na+ -> action potential)
Q:
Myelination and Conduction Velocity 
A:
  • Myelination of axon (reducing current leakage; increase current passively travel distance) 
  • Nodes of Ranvier (action potential propagation; action potential only occurs at these points) 
Q:
Chemical Communication-Afterward 
A:
  • Neurotransmitter- inactivated/ removed 
  • Retrieved by presynaptic receptor (up-take) -> degraded or repackaged 
  • Auto-receptors feedback to presynaptic neuron ( too much transmitter- less production and release; too little transmitters-> increase releasing)
  • Hetero-receptors( presynaptic receptor) - excitatory or inhibitory messages from other neurons-> transmitter release 
Q:
Criteria of neurotransmitter
A:
  • Must be present within the presynaptic neuron 
  • Must be ca2 dependent released in response to presynaptic depolarisation 
  • Specific receptor must be present on the postsynaptic neurons 
  • Different types of neurotransmitters >100 
Q:
What contains the Nervous System? 
A:
  • Central Nervous System
  • Spinal cord
  • Peripheral nervous system (which has somatic nervous system (SNS) 
  • Autonomic Nervous System ANS (which regulates internal organs of the body)
Biopsychology

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