Network at LMU München

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Network at the LMU München

Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

1. What is a network?

2. Why do you need communication protocols like TCP/IP for networks? 

Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What types of computer networks are there?

Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What are the two network architectures? What are theirs pros and cons?

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Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What are the networks by size?

Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What are network protocols?

Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What is a MAC address (Media Access Control)?

Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What is an IP address/ IPv4? 

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Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What is half and duplex communication?

Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What is Ethernet?

Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

1. What are network topologies?

2. What is the importance of physical topologies?

Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What is a Network Interface Card (NIC)?

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What is a hub?

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Exemplary flashcards for Network at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

Network

1. What is a network?

2. Why do you need communication protocols like TCP/IP for networks? 

1. More than 2 computers connected together to share resources. It has a physical connection (data transportation through cables, wifi) and a logical connection (the real data).


Data must be uncorrupted
Computers must be able to know the origin and destination of data (like IP address, MAC)


2. Because computers in a network need to use the same procedures for sending and receiving data.

Network

What types of computer networks are there?

1. Network Architecture:

a. Client-Server

b. Peer-to-Peer


2. Networks by Size:

a. Local Area Network (LAN)

b. Campus Area Network (CAN)

c. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

d. Wide Area Network (WAN)

Network

What are the two network architectures? What are theirs pros and cons?

a. Client-Server & b. Peer-to-Peer


a. network with clients and servers, where clients receive resources and servers provide centralised control over network resources (files, printers, authentication, etc.)


+ centralised user accounts, access controls, network administration

+ more efficient access to network resources

+ single password to access resources


- server failure leads to unusable network and loss of resources

- need expert staff for maintenance (bc of special software that runs on servers)

- increased cost bc of special software and dedicated hardware


b. all computers on network are peers, no centralised control, any individual can share resources, all computers can act as server by providing resources or as a client by receiving resources


+ easy to install and configure

+ does not depend on dedicated server

+ users control their own resources

+ inexpensive to purchase and operate

+ no dedicated administrators are needed to run the network


- network security applies only to one resources at a time

- users may be forced to use as many resources as there are shared resources

- each machine must be backed up individually to protect all data

- no centralised access control


Network

What are the networks by size?

a. LAN

single room, building, group of buildings


b. CAN

interconnected LANs

corporation, university campus


b. MAN

interconnects in city

CAN < MAN < WAN


c. WAN

multiple cities, countries

Network

What are network protocols?

rules governing how machines exchange data and enable effective communication


a. Physical Protocols: describe the medium (wires or wireless), the connection (RJ-45 port), and the signal (voltage level on a wire)


e.g. Ethernet


b. Logical Protocols: software controlling how and when data is sent and received


e.g. TCP/IP


computer networks need multiple protocols to work.

Network

What is a MAC address (Media Access Control)?

- physical address of/burnt in the ROM chip of the network adapter card (NIC)

- it cannot be changed

- in OSI 2/ TCP/IP 1 Layer

- allows internetwork communication via hubs, switches and routers (LAN)


- 6 bytes in hexadecimal

- first 3 bytes OUI by IEEE (Organizationally Unique Identifier like for Dell or HP)

- last 3 bytes unique

Network

What is an IP address/ IPv4? 

- logical address which can be assigned to 

- Internet Protocol version 4

- OSI 3 Layer

- allows network-to-network communication via routers (WAN)

- = Network address + Host address

- Network address: identifies the network (similar to a street name)

- Host address: identifies a machine (similar to a street number)

- comes with a subnet mask which determines the subnet/network the machine is on


IP Address Classes:

                   Class A | Class B | Class C

Network Bit 8, 16, 24

Default Subnet mask 255.0.0.0, 255.255.0.0, 255.255.255.0

CIDR Notation /8, /16, /24


Available number of Host addresses: 2^h-2 (network & broadcast address)


Public vs. Private IP Addresses

Public: routable on Internet

Private: used on private networks, uses NAT (network address translation)

Network

What is half and duplex communication?

half duplex: Can send and receive data, but not at the same time


full duplex: Can send and receive data simultaneously

Network

What is Ethernet?

- physical standard IEE 802.3

- family of standards that together define the OSI 1 & 2 Layers  for LAN communication, how data is transmitted for LAN

- standard communication protocol for building a LAN (speeds, cabling, connectors, equipment)

- modern Ethernet uses twisted pair or fiber cable.

- uses CSMA/CD access methodology

- uses "xxBaseT" convention (xx=speed of cable in Mbps, Base=baseband, T=type of cable)


Network

1. What are network topologies?

2. What is the importance of physical topologies?

1. They define the structure and/or properties of a network. They can be either physical or logical.


Physical topologies: 

physical design with location of devices, cables (like a blueprint)


Logical topologies:

define how data moves throughout a network (CSMA/CA, CSMA/CD, Ethernet)


2. 

- useful in planning a network (for campus, office)

- help to troubleshoot

Network

What is a Network Interface Card (NIC)?

- the network adapter installed on your network device

- allows to communicate with network

- provides physical connection (twisted pair, fiber optic, radio)

- as expansion card, USB, or built-in directly

Network

What is a hub?

- connects devices together within a network

- OSI 1 Layer

- replaced by switches

- "multi-port repeater": it is a dumb device because traffic is sent to all devices instead of just one

- less efficient and secure than switches bc you can listen on information

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Networking

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CompTIA Network+

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