Introduction to Linguistics at LMU München

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What is the Organon Model, who is it by? 
Further explain the linguistic sign. 

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What is the linearity of language? 

Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What are paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations? 
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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

What is the difference between synchrony and diachrony? 

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What is langue and parole? 

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What is the difference between descriptivism and prescriptivism amd what does the Dunning Krüger effect have to do with it? 

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What is the difference between object language and metalanguage? 
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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

Segmental Phonology - Terms

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Phonetics: Usual criteria for description of speech sounds

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What is Suprasegmental Phonolgy? 

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Segmental Phonology: Allophones - Free Variation
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Domains of Phonetics

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Exemplary flashcards for Introduction to Linguistics at the LMU München on StudySmarter:

Introduction to Linguistics

What is the Organon Model, who is it by? 
Further explain the linguistic sign. 
It is by Bühler, from 1934

here is the model:

SENDER - - (expression) - - >
LINGUISTIC SIGN
--(appeal) - - > RECEIVER

The linguistic sign has two parts: The signifier (which is the linguistic form the SENDER may choose to communicate the meaning he wishes) and the signified (which is the thing that the linguistic form means). 

Example: signifier : "tree" 
                   signified : actual tree

their relationship is arbitrary and tehrefore flexible, however there usually needs to be a conventional pairing in place for the meaning of the signifier to translate well to others. 

exemption : onomatopoeic words ("whoof") 

Introduction to Linguistics

What is the linearity of language? 
It is a characteristic of language. 
For language to be successfully interpreted, the different parts of a particular message need to be distributed over various temporal phases of the communication. 
Therefore, to be linear and sequential in nature (and not simultaneous, although this is sometimes possible in sign) is an important characteristic of language. 

Introduction to Linguistics

What are paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations? 
The syntagmatic relation of words is sequential. 
This means that words are combined one after the other according to the rules of grammar (Syntax). 
The axis along which words can be  combined in this way is called the syntagmatic axis. 


The paradigmatic relation of words is however based on selection. 
This means that words can be substituted for one another, according to the rules of word classes. 
The axis along which words can be substituted or selected is called tge paradigmatic axis.

Introduction to Linguistics

What is the difference between synchrony and diachrony? 
Synchrony describes language at one single point in time while diachrony describes its change over a larger period. 

Introduction to Linguistics

What is langue and parole? 
Langue is a level of analysis considering the theoretical rules of a language system. 

Parole is how people actually speak said language. 

Introduction to Linguistics

What is the difference between descriptivism and prescriptivism amd what does the Dunning Krüger effect have to do with it? 
Descriptivism is simply observing/describing how a language works and is spoken, while prescriptivsm tries to split what is good and what is bad use of language. 

The Dunning Krüger effect happens when one is new to a specific topic and with growing knowledge feels growing authority in this new field, including criticism of it. When this knowledge keeps growing however, one is humbled to find out that kne actually knows very little. 
Some opinions state that prescriptivism is not the latter of these two points on the timeline. 

Introduction to Linguistics

What is the difference between object language and metalanguage? 
Object language is the "normal"/every day use of language, while metalanguage refers to using language to talk about how language works. 

Underlining specific words here is important to distinguish between which words are actually being used which are just being referenced:
Verb is a noun.
Saying shit is not allowed. 

Introduction to Linguistics

Segmental Phonology - Terms
  • phone: concrete realization of speech sound

  • phoneme: smallest meaning-distinguishing sound unit in a language system

  • minimal pair: two words that differ in meaning and in one sound only; used to establish whether two sounds have phonemic status in a given language; i. e. to establish the Phoneme inventory of a language

  • allophone: Realisation variant of a phoneme; occurs either in complementary distribution with other allophones or as a free variant 

  • phoneme: inventory of language-specific set of phonemes that are selected from a potentially unlimited number of possible sounds and shape the phonological system of a language

  • phonotactics: study of possible combinations of phonemes in a language, e. g. word-initial/ps (as in psychology) is not permissible in Present-Day English 

  • distinctive features: description of a phoneme based on its distinctive features, e. g.  /p/ (+consonant, +plosives, +bilabial, - Voiced) 

Introduction to Linguistics

Phonetics: Usual criteria for description of speech sounds
  • pulmonic vs. non-pulmonic(longs don't produce an airstream) 

  • egressive vs. ingressive(inhale) 

  • oral vs nasal vs. nasalized (air stream through mouth and nose) 

Introduction to Linguistics

What is Suprasegmental Phonolgy? 
It is a field in phonology that concerns itself with the phonological properties that extend over syllables, words or entire sentences rather than a single segment (phoneme) 

Examples:
  • stresss
  • tone
  • rhythm
  • intonation
  • etc. 

Introduction to Linguistics

Segmental Phonology: Allophones - Free Variation
Free Variation of allophones means that it cannot be predicted which allophone of a phoneme will occur when only looking at its placement in a word. 

Extralinguistic factors: 
  • age 
  • gender
  • social class
  • geographic location 
  • etc. 

Example: Allophones of /r/ in german

Introduction to Linguistics

Domains of Phonetics
  • Articulatory ( Speaker: production) 
  • Acoustic ( Medium: transmission + physical properties of speech sounds) 
  •  Auditory (Hearer: Perception) 

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