General Psychology at Leuphana Universität | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für General Psychology an der Leuphana Universität

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What are types of perceptional blindnesses

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- Change blindness

= the failure to detect various changes (e.g. in objects) in the visual environment 

- Inattentional blindness

the failure to detect an unexpected object in the visual environment (e.g. the Gorilla in the video of people passing a ball) 

- Change blindness blindness

 = the tendency of observers to overestimate great the extent to which they can detect visual changes and so avoid change blindness.  

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What is the retinal flow field and where does it come into play? 

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The retinal flow field = the change in the pattern of light on the retina 

It is influenced by two factors:

- Linear flow: contains the focus of expansion 

- Rotary flow: rotations in the retinal image by internal eye and head movement as well as by environmental changes (like a curvy road) 


It is important for visually guided movement, more in detail for the process of heading and steering

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What is the radial outflow hypothesis?

Where is it important? 

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The radial outflow hypothesis:

If one is not moving directly towards a goal, they use the focus of expansion and optic flow to bring their heading (= point of expansion)  into alignment with the goal 

Limitation: can only be applied when moving straight toward a goal (e.g due to curves, obstacles, etc.) 


Importance: Comes into play for heading and steering 

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Which factors are important for heading and steering

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- The goal radial outflow hypothesis 

- Binocular disparity 

- Efference copy

- The retinal flow field (linear & rotary flow)

- The tangent point

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Which bottleneck theories have been put forward regarding focused auditory attention?

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- Filter on early selection theory by Broadbent, 1958 

- Attenuation theory by Treisman, 1964

- Late selection by Deutsch and Deutsch, 1963


( Later: )

- Coch et al., 2005

- Horton et al., 2013 

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Explain the "cocktail-party-problem", by C. Cherry, 1953, which investigates focused auditory attention. 

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- Proposed by C. Cherry in 1953

"How do we focus on one conversation when several people are talking at once?"


Listeners face two problems when attending to one voice among many: 

1) Sound segregation: which sounds belong together? 

2) Locating/attending the source of interest


A Dichotic listening task is used in order to study the problem:

- Participants are presented with different auditory messages to each ear and asked to repeat the message of interest in order to demonstrate, that their attention is focused onto the right input

- This process of repeating is called shadowing 

- Normally listeners use differences between physical features of the auditory inputs (like e.g. the sex of the speakers, their voice intensity, the location of the speaker) 

- However, when the auditory input came directly to both ears, listeners found it very hard to separate the messages based solely on differences in meaning 

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Which comparisons are made to describe focused visual attention

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- Spotlight 

Visual attention is like a single spotlight or multiple spotlights. The latter assumption involves split attention (= the allocation of attention to two or more non-adjacent regions of visual space)

- Zoom-lens

Others argued, visual attention to be like a Zoom-lens as we can deliberately in- or decrease the area of focal attention just like a zoom lens can be adjusted to alter the visual area it covers. 

This approach is more flexible than the spotlight assumption. 

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Dual-task performance / multitasking performance requires divided attention

Describe how individuals' performances can be affected differently. 

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High multi-taskers:

- More susceptible to distraction and perform worse on tasks requiring sustained attention, working memory and/or long-term memory 

- Impaired cognitive control leads to scattered attention (e.g. attending to several media simultaneously) 

Low multi-taskers: 

- Good top-down attentional control 

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What are determinants of dual-task performance quality

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Determinants for how well we can perform two tasks at the same time are the following:

- Overall similarity of the two tasks

- Similar stimulus modality 

- Similar response modality

- Practice 

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What are the different theories that address the topic of divided attention?

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- Threaded-cognition model 

- Multiple-resource model by Wickens, 2008

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What are the different theories that address the topic of visual search

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- Feature integration theory by Treisman & Gelade, 1980 

- Dual-path model by Wolfe et al., 2011

- Texture tiling model by Rosenholtz, 2016

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What are the key assumptions of the theory of direct perception by J. Gibson? 

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The theory of direct perception is a new, radical approach to visual perception (ecological psychology):

- perception and action are closely intertwined 

- perception involves "keeping in touch with the environment" 

-  perception facilitates interaction between the individual and the environment 

- there is more to perception than mere object identification, it involves unambiguous and invariant information pickup 


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Q:

What are types of perceptional blindnesses

A:

- Change blindness

= the failure to detect various changes (e.g. in objects) in the visual environment 

- Inattentional blindness

the failure to detect an unexpected object in the visual environment (e.g. the Gorilla in the video of people passing a ball) 

- Change blindness blindness

 = the tendency of observers to overestimate great the extent to which they can detect visual changes and so avoid change blindness.  

Q:

What is the retinal flow field and where does it come into play? 

A:

The retinal flow field = the change in the pattern of light on the retina 

It is influenced by two factors:

- Linear flow: contains the focus of expansion 

- Rotary flow: rotations in the retinal image by internal eye and head movement as well as by environmental changes (like a curvy road) 


It is important for visually guided movement, more in detail for the process of heading and steering

Q:

What is the radial outflow hypothesis?

Where is it important? 

A:

The radial outflow hypothesis:

If one is not moving directly towards a goal, they use the focus of expansion and optic flow to bring their heading (= point of expansion)  into alignment with the goal 

Limitation: can only be applied when moving straight toward a goal (e.g due to curves, obstacles, etc.) 


Importance: Comes into play for heading and steering 

Q:

Which factors are important for heading and steering

A:

- The goal radial outflow hypothesis 

- Binocular disparity 

- Efference copy

- The retinal flow field (linear & rotary flow)

- The tangent point

Q:

Which bottleneck theories have been put forward regarding focused auditory attention?

A:

- Filter on early selection theory by Broadbent, 1958 

- Attenuation theory by Treisman, 1964

- Late selection by Deutsch and Deutsch, 1963


( Later: )

- Coch et al., 2005

- Horton et al., 2013 

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Explain the "cocktail-party-problem", by C. Cherry, 1953, which investigates focused auditory attention. 

A:

- Proposed by C. Cherry in 1953

"How do we focus on one conversation when several people are talking at once?"


Listeners face two problems when attending to one voice among many: 

1) Sound segregation: which sounds belong together? 

2) Locating/attending the source of interest


A Dichotic listening task is used in order to study the problem:

- Participants are presented with different auditory messages to each ear and asked to repeat the message of interest in order to demonstrate, that their attention is focused onto the right input

- This process of repeating is called shadowing 

- Normally listeners use differences between physical features of the auditory inputs (like e.g. the sex of the speakers, their voice intensity, the location of the speaker) 

- However, when the auditory input came directly to both ears, listeners found it very hard to separate the messages based solely on differences in meaning 

Q:

Which comparisons are made to describe focused visual attention

A:

- Spotlight 

Visual attention is like a single spotlight or multiple spotlights. The latter assumption involves split attention (= the allocation of attention to two or more non-adjacent regions of visual space)

- Zoom-lens

Others argued, visual attention to be like a Zoom-lens as we can deliberately in- or decrease the area of focal attention just like a zoom lens can be adjusted to alter the visual area it covers. 

This approach is more flexible than the spotlight assumption. 

Q:

Dual-task performance / multitasking performance requires divided attention

Describe how individuals' performances can be affected differently. 

A:

High multi-taskers:

- More susceptible to distraction and perform worse on tasks requiring sustained attention, working memory and/or long-term memory 

- Impaired cognitive control leads to scattered attention (e.g. attending to several media simultaneously) 

Low multi-taskers: 

- Good top-down attentional control 

Q:

What are determinants of dual-task performance quality

A:

Determinants for how well we can perform two tasks at the same time are the following:

- Overall similarity of the two tasks

- Similar stimulus modality 

- Similar response modality

- Practice 

Q:

What are the different theories that address the topic of divided attention?

A:

- Threaded-cognition model 

- Multiple-resource model by Wickens, 2008

Q:

What are the different theories that address the topic of visual search

A:

- Feature integration theory by Treisman & Gelade, 1980 

- Dual-path model by Wolfe et al., 2011

- Texture tiling model by Rosenholtz, 2016

Q:

What are the key assumptions of the theory of direct perception by J. Gibson? 

A:

The theory of direct perception is a new, radical approach to visual perception (ecological psychology):

- perception and action are closely intertwined 

- perception involves "keeping in touch with the environment" 

-  perception facilitates interaction between the individual and the environment 

- there is more to perception than mere object identification, it involves unambiguous and invariant information pickup 


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