Common Law Leuphana at Leuphana Universität | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
3. What do you understand by the doctrine of stare decisis?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Stare decisis is a legal doctrine that obligates courts to follow historical cases when making a ruling on a similar case


— Stare decisis requires that cases follow the precedents of other similar cases in similar jurisdictions.
— The U.S. Supreme Court is the nation’s highest court; therefore, all states rely on Supreme Court precedents.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
4.What source of law comes highest in the hierarchy of norms in the UK? Please explain why this source is the most important.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Act of Parliament 
    - House of Commons 
        - elected chambers and debates about important topics 
    - House of Lords 
        - share the making of laws with the house of commons + debates  
    - Monarch 
        - what is going on in the parliament ?, thy agrees on new laws
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
4. Please explain why this source is the most important. highest source of law in the UK?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Before the 1688 the monach had the power to create the law. After the power was taken from the monach and given to the parliament. 
  • Works for democracy 
  • The parliament cannot bind the future parliament means, parliament’s can make law concerning anything and no future parliament can pass, change or reverse a law that can not be changed
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
5. What source of law comes highest in the hierarchy of norms in the USA? Please explain why this source is the most important.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. Constitution 
  2. Statutory law 
  3. Case law 
  4. Administrativ regulations
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
6. What do you understand by the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty or parliamentary supremacy in the UK?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Parliamentary sovereignty is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies. It holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty and supreme over all other government institutions, including executive or judicial bodies.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
7. What is the difference between the ratio decidendi and the obiter dicta?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Ratio decidenti
  • Ratio decidenti means just the reasoning factor behind the decision is binding
  • May be described as a rule of law applied by and acted on by the court 
  • Has binding authority for subordinate courts 
  • Treated by the judge as necessary step in reaching the conclusion 

Obiter dicta
  • The pronouncement of law in the judgment 
  • Not authoritative or binding 
  • Is a statement made by the judge in course of his judgment which may not be relevant to the issue before him 
  • Has no such authority. It is a casual expression by the courts, carries no weight 
  • Is not a necessary step to the conclusion.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
8. In common law legal systems, what is the law of equity? Give an example of an equitable doctrine or principle.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • principles adopted to administer justice and fairness.
  • “where there is a right there is a remedy”. The maxim states that in situations where the common law confers a right, it also gives a remedy for infringement of that right.
  • In the Law of Equity, injunction and specific performance are also the types of remedies available.

In Ashby v. white a qualified voter was not allowed to vote and thus he sued the returning officer, this case deals with the principle laid down in this maxim, i.e. if a person has been granted a right, he is also granted with a remedy.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
9. What does it mean when a court ‘distinguishes the case before it from previous cases?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • In law, to distinguish a case means a court decides the legal reasoning of a precedent case will not wholly apply due to materially different facts between the two cases.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
10. Please explain the separation of powers in the USA.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • legislative -> 
congress -> House of Representatives -> Senat
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
11. What is the objective of statutory interpretation?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
We often say that we are looking for the intention of Parliament, but that is not quite accurate. We are seeking the meaning of the words which Parliament used. We are seeing not what Parliament meant but the true meaning of what they said.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
12. Please explain what you understand by the ‘literal rule’ in statutory interpretation.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Under the literal rule, the words of the statute are given their natural or ordinary meaning and applied without the judge seeking to put a gloss on the words or seek to make sense of the statute.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
2. Choose one major difference between common law and civil law systems. Please explain this difference.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Norms comes from the statues 
Established rules by Prinzips 


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Q:
3. What do you understand by the doctrine of stare decisis?
A:
Stare decisis is a legal doctrine that obligates courts to follow historical cases when making a ruling on a similar case


— Stare decisis requires that cases follow the precedents of other similar cases in similar jurisdictions.
— The U.S. Supreme Court is the nation’s highest court; therefore, all states rely on Supreme Court precedents.
Q:
4.What source of law comes highest in the hierarchy of norms in the UK? Please explain why this source is the most important.
A:
1. Act of Parliament 
    - House of Commons 
        - elected chambers and debates about important topics 
    - House of Lords 
        - share the making of laws with the house of commons + debates  
    - Monarch 
        - what is going on in the parliament ?, thy agrees on new laws
Q:
4. Please explain why this source is the most important. highest source of law in the UK?
A:
  • Before the 1688 the monach had the power to create the law. After the power was taken from the monach and given to the parliament. 
  • Works for democracy 
  • The parliament cannot bind the future parliament means, parliament’s can make law concerning anything and no future parliament can pass, change or reverse a law that can not be changed
Q:
5. What source of law comes highest in the hierarchy of norms in the USA? Please explain why this source is the most important.
A:
  1. Constitution 
  2. Statutory law 
  3. Case law 
  4. Administrativ regulations
Q:
6. What do you understand by the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty or parliamentary supremacy in the UK?
A:
Parliamentary sovereignty is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies. It holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty and supreme over all other government institutions, including executive or judicial bodies.
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
7. What is the difference between the ratio decidendi and the obiter dicta?
A:
Ratio decidenti
  • Ratio decidenti means just the reasoning factor behind the decision is binding
  • May be described as a rule of law applied by and acted on by the court 
  • Has binding authority for subordinate courts 
  • Treated by the judge as necessary step in reaching the conclusion 

Obiter dicta
  • The pronouncement of law in the judgment 
  • Not authoritative or binding 
  • Is a statement made by the judge in course of his judgment which may not be relevant to the issue before him 
  • Has no such authority. It is a casual expression by the courts, carries no weight 
  • Is not a necessary step to the conclusion.
Q:
8. In common law legal systems, what is the law of equity? Give an example of an equitable doctrine or principle.
A:
  • principles adopted to administer justice and fairness.
  • “where there is a right there is a remedy”. The maxim states that in situations where the common law confers a right, it also gives a remedy for infringement of that right.
  • In the Law of Equity, injunction and specific performance are also the types of remedies available.

In Ashby v. white a qualified voter was not allowed to vote and thus he sued the returning officer, this case deals with the principle laid down in this maxim, i.e. if a person has been granted a right, he is also granted with a remedy.


Q:
9. What does it mean when a court ‘distinguishes the case before it from previous cases?
A:
  • In law, to distinguish a case means a court decides the legal reasoning of a precedent case will not wholly apply due to materially different facts between the two cases.
Q:
10. Please explain the separation of powers in the USA.
A:
  • legislative -> 
congress -> House of Representatives -> Senat
Q:
11. What is the objective of statutory interpretation?
A:
We often say that we are looking for the intention of Parliament, but that is not quite accurate. We are seeking the meaning of the words which Parliament used. We are seeing not what Parliament meant but the true meaning of what they said.
Q:
12. Please explain what you understand by the ‘literal rule’ in statutory interpretation.
A:
  • Under the literal rule, the words of the statute are given their natural or ordinary meaning and applied without the judge seeking to put a gloss on the words or seek to make sense of the statute.
Q:
2. Choose one major difference between common law and civil law systems. Please explain this difference.
A:
Norms comes from the statues 
Established rules by Prinzips 


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