IR at Leiden University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für IR an der Leiden University

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are historical origins of constructuvism?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
R&L can't explain end of CW (was not expected)
--> criticism of fundamental assumptions of IR: Nature of the state, sovereignty, anarchy, rationality,
democracy, self-determination…

origins from philosophy and sociology --> human mind filters -->objective understanding of IR (Weber: Verstehen)--> structure (states and IOs) shape actions of states --> structure and agency
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are limitations of non-Western approaches?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• Theorizing locally can restrain dialogue
Ø National schools of IR & dangers of fragmenting the discipline
Ø “Theory is always for someone and for some purpose” (Cox) --> problem-solving theories take the world as it is and use the prevailing social and power relations and their organising institutions as a framework
Ø No “international” theories
Ø Need to get the two-way dialogue between the local & global right: identify shared & common patterns

• Globalization: What/Who is Western & who is non-Western?
Ø Are these categories not problematic?
Ø Boundary-making to some degree by emphasizing “non-Western” contributions
Ø Shift to promoting “Global IR”

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Where do the roots of liberalism and realism lay?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Melian dialogue (416 BC)

• Melians: Justice, neutrality, honor, alliances --> Liberals
• Athenians: self-help, power differential, survival --> Realists

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the 3. wave of liberalism

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

LIBERAL INTERNATIONALISM

• Liberal triumphalism? --> free markets, interdependent world, more democracies
Ø Drop in conflicts, increase in global trade & number of democracies
(Pinker, Fukuyama…)

• Liberal internationalism
Ø Liberal international order (Ikenberry)
--> emerged out of WW2, institutionalized view of liberal hegemony, IOs matter

• But inherent tensions
Ø Is it liberal? Is it order? Universal?
Ø Sovereignty, democracy, self-determination, HR (R2P) --> contradicting norms
Ø Representative/democratic vs. effective role of IOs?
Ø Rise of new powers and ideas (China, India…) --> no liberal views
Ø The false promise of international institutions (Mearsheimer, 1994) --> self-interest realized through IOs, IOs only matter when superpower supports them

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name 3 examples that according to constructivists IR concepts are social inventions

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Anarchy is what states make out of it (Wendt 1992)
- Practice of sovereignty
- Nuclear taboo

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain Sovereignty as an uncontested
norm

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Practicing sovereignty --> norm becomes shared and shapes relations
Ø Norms compete: Vs. other norms (HR, selfdetermination of smaller groups) --> which norm gets accepted by international environment?
Ø R2P: based upon the underlying premise that sovereignty entails a responsibility to protect all populations from mass atrocity crimes and human rights violations
Ø State vs. nation?

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the view of postcolonialism on globalization?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Postcolonialism: important degree of continuity and persistence of colonial forms of power in the globalized world; focus on inequality on global scale

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

According to the concept of polarity, which order is the most stable (1) and the least stable (3)?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1) unipolar
2) bipolar
3) multipolar

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the 3 core tenets of realism
Who implemented them?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

STATISM: (Thucydides)
- state is the main actor (not the only but major)
- state is a unitary actor (leaders, parties, personality do not matter)
- state is a rational actor (only rely on yourself, no allies but socialize into environment with distribution of power)

SURVIVAL (Machiavelli)
- states mainly concerned with its own security
(principles subordinated to security policies, only one national interest: maintenance of one own)

SELF-HELP (Hobbes)
- states operate in an insecure state of nature (constant struggle for power)
- state of anarchy: absence of hierarchy/authority shapes individual state behaviour which concludes in fear, suspicion, insecurity

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain classical realism and an important scholar

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Carr & Morgenthau

• Reaction to WW2 and ‘idealism’ or ‘utopianism from inter-war period
Ø Human nature explains state behavior (selfishness, power-lust)
Ø Competition/conflict inherent --> due to human behaviour
Ø Struggle for power (unrestrained?)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What defines a state? 4 points
Where did this definition arise?
What are problems of this definition?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:
a ) a permanent population;
b ) a defined territory;
c ) government;
d) and a capacity to enter into relations with the other states

--> According to international law (Art. 1, Montevideo convention on the
Rights and Duties of States, 1933)

- State must be recognized by other states/UN (declarative vs. consitutive)
- creation of state in practice (IS)
- internal vs. external sovereignty (authority is recognized within territory vs. recognized by other actors)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are limited, total, real and true/absolute war?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Limited war: fought for a lesser goal than political existence (territory,…)
- Total war: fighting for existence of state

- Real war: historically happened, limited to certain factors (e.g. friction)
- True/absolute war: escalatory (more violent, longer, over more space)

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
What are historical origins of constructuvism?
A:
R&L can't explain end of CW (was not expected)
--> criticism of fundamental assumptions of IR: Nature of the state, sovereignty, anarchy, rationality,
democracy, self-determination…

origins from philosophy and sociology --> human mind filters -->objective understanding of IR (Weber: Verstehen)--> structure (states and IOs) shape actions of states --> structure and agency
Q:

What are limitations of non-Western approaches?

A:

• Theorizing locally can restrain dialogue
Ø National schools of IR & dangers of fragmenting the discipline
Ø “Theory is always for someone and for some purpose” (Cox) --> problem-solving theories take the world as it is and use the prevailing social and power relations and their organising institutions as a framework
Ø No “international” theories
Ø Need to get the two-way dialogue between the local & global right: identify shared & common patterns

• Globalization: What/Who is Western & who is non-Western?
Ø Are these categories not problematic?
Ø Boundary-making to some degree by emphasizing “non-Western” contributions
Ø Shift to promoting “Global IR”

Q:

Where do the roots of liberalism and realism lay?

A:

Melian dialogue (416 BC)

• Melians: Justice, neutrality, honor, alliances --> Liberals
• Athenians: self-help, power differential, survival --> Realists

Q:

Explain the 3. wave of liberalism

A:

LIBERAL INTERNATIONALISM

• Liberal triumphalism? --> free markets, interdependent world, more democracies
Ø Drop in conflicts, increase in global trade & number of democracies
(Pinker, Fukuyama…)

• Liberal internationalism
Ø Liberal international order (Ikenberry)
--> emerged out of WW2, institutionalized view of liberal hegemony, IOs matter

• But inherent tensions
Ø Is it liberal? Is it order? Universal?
Ø Sovereignty, democracy, self-determination, HR (R2P) --> contradicting norms
Ø Representative/democratic vs. effective role of IOs?
Ø Rise of new powers and ideas (China, India…) --> no liberal views
Ø The false promise of international institutions (Mearsheimer, 1994) --> self-interest realized through IOs, IOs only matter when superpower supports them

Q:

Name 3 examples that according to constructivists IR concepts are social inventions

A:

- Anarchy is what states make out of it (Wendt 1992)
- Practice of sovereignty
- Nuclear taboo

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Explain Sovereignty as an uncontested
norm

A:

Practicing sovereignty --> norm becomes shared and shapes relations
Ø Norms compete: Vs. other norms (HR, selfdetermination of smaller groups) --> which norm gets accepted by international environment?
Ø R2P: based upon the underlying premise that sovereignty entails a responsibility to protect all populations from mass atrocity crimes and human rights violations
Ø State vs. nation?

Q:
What is the view of postcolonialism on globalization?
A:

Postcolonialism: important degree of continuity and persistence of colonial forms of power in the globalized world; focus on inequality on global scale

Q:

According to the concept of polarity, which order is the most stable (1) and the least stable (3)?

A:

1) unipolar
2) bipolar
3) multipolar

Q:

Explain the 3 core tenets of realism
Who implemented them?

A:

STATISM: (Thucydides)
- state is the main actor (not the only but major)
- state is a unitary actor (leaders, parties, personality do not matter)
- state is a rational actor (only rely on yourself, no allies but socialize into environment with distribution of power)

SURVIVAL (Machiavelli)
- states mainly concerned with its own security
(principles subordinated to security policies, only one national interest: maintenance of one own)

SELF-HELP (Hobbes)
- states operate in an insecure state of nature (constant struggle for power)
- state of anarchy: absence of hierarchy/authority shapes individual state behaviour which concludes in fear, suspicion, insecurity

Q:

Explain classical realism and an important scholar

A:

Carr & Morgenthau

• Reaction to WW2 and ‘idealism’ or ‘utopianism from inter-war period
Ø Human nature explains state behavior (selfishness, power-lust)
Ø Competition/conflict inherent --> due to human behaviour
Ø Struggle for power (unrestrained?)

Q:

What defines a state? 4 points
Where did this definition arise?
What are problems of this definition?

A:

The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:
a ) a permanent population;
b ) a defined territory;
c ) government;
d) and a capacity to enter into relations with the other states

--> According to international law (Art. 1, Montevideo convention on the
Rights and Duties of States, 1933)

- State must be recognized by other states/UN (declarative vs. consitutive)
- creation of state in practice (IS)
- internal vs. external sovereignty (authority is recognized within territory vs. recognized by other actors)

Q:

What are limited, total, real and true/absolute war?

A:

- Limited war: fought for a lesser goal than political existence (territory,…)
- Total war: fighting for existence of state

- Real war: historically happened, limited to certain factors (e.g. friction)
- True/absolute war: escalatory (more violent, longer, over more space)

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