Introduction To Research Methods & Statistics at Leiden University | Flashcards & Summaries

# Lernmaterialien für Introduction to Research Methods & Statistics an der Leiden University

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Why is proof logically impossible?

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Because we can only collect data to support/falsify hypothesis. Hypothesis are only derived  from a theory. If Theory is true -> Hypothesis is true, only one way.

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Why is disproof practically impossible?

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The disproof works logically, if !hypothesis -> !theory. But practically we can not outline different states for our hypothesis. Maybe we used the wrong methods to measure the hypothesis. There may also be a biased or inappropriate sample of test subjects.

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How does science make progress?

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Science tries to collect qualitative and quantitative evidence to support a theory.

Factors may be:

• Stringency of tests
• Number of confirmations
• Methodological pluralism = variability of methods
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What are the aims of behavioral research?

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Describing, predicting and explaining differences in behavior and mental processes between people (= variability) .

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What is a variable?

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Something that can vary.

• between persons (e.g. height, fear, motivation)
• between situations (e.g. work vs. private)
• over the course of time (e.g. child > adult)
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Why do we divide through n-1 instead of n?

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Because you get a more accurate result.

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How big are the effect sizes (VAF) in real life?

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• small: 0.01
• medium: 0.06
• large: >0.15

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What are the characteristics of an experiment?

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Experimental: Cause and effect. Characteristics: manipulation, random assignment, and experimental control.

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Why is quasi-experimental research different to experimental research?

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Because there is less control and/or no random assignment of the subjects.

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What is longitudinal or panel survey design?
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This design uses a single group of respondents and questions them more than once.
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What is a successive independent sample survey design?
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If two or more samples of respondents answer the same questions at different points in time.
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Which two kinds of definitions can be distinguished? (+ description)

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1) Conceptual = what is meant by a concept (abstract)

2) Operational = how is a concept measured or induced in a particular study (concrete).

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Q:

Why is proof logically impossible?

A:

Because we can only collect data to support/falsify hypothesis. Hypothesis are only derived  from a theory. If Theory is true -> Hypothesis is true, only one way.

Q:

Why is disproof practically impossible?

A:

The disproof works logically, if !hypothesis -> !theory. But practically we can not outline different states for our hypothesis. Maybe we used the wrong methods to measure the hypothesis. There may also be a biased or inappropriate sample of test subjects.

Q:

How does science make progress?

A:

Science tries to collect qualitative and quantitative evidence to support a theory.

Factors may be:

• Stringency of tests
• Number of confirmations
• Methodological pluralism = variability of methods
Q:

What are the aims of behavioral research?

A:

Describing, predicting and explaining differences in behavior and mental processes between people (= variability) .

Q:

What is a variable?

A:

Something that can vary.

• between persons (e.g. height, fear, motivation)
• between situations (e.g. work vs. private)
• over the course of time (e.g. child > adult)
Q:

Why do we divide through n-1 instead of n?

A:

Because you get a more accurate result.

Q:

How big are the effect sizes (VAF) in real life?

A:
• small: 0.01
• medium: 0.06
• large: >0.15

Q:

What are the characteristics of an experiment?

A:

Experimental: Cause and effect. Characteristics: manipulation, random assignment, and experimental control.

Q:

Why is quasi-experimental research different to experimental research?

A:

Because there is less control and/or no random assignment of the subjects.

Q:
What is longitudinal or panel survey design?
A:
This design uses a single group of respondents and questions them more than once.
Q:
What is a successive independent sample survey design?
A:
If two or more samples of respondents answer the same questions at different points in time.
Q:

Which two kinds of definitions can be distinguished? (+ description)

A:

1) Conceptual = what is meant by a concept (abstract)

2) Operational = how is a concept measured or induced in a particular study (concrete).

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