Water Economics at Leibniz Universität Hannover | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Water Economics an der Leibniz Universität Hannover

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what is black water?

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  • Heavily polluted, harmful to humans and ecosystems 
  • Economically unusable
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what are types of water use?

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Non-consumptive use

  • environmental flows
  • transportation
  • recreation

consumptive use = removal of water from the system; water pollution and quality deterioration

  • crop production
  • livestock rearing
  • urban domestic (hygiene)
  • urban industrial (fashion industry, cooling of machinery,..)
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what is white water?

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  • • Non-productive part of green water 
  • Evaporates directly into the atmosphere (non-productive use) 
  • Includes losses from open water and soil surfaces
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what is grey water?

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  • Usually wastewater 
  • Poor in quality, but usable for some purposes
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What is understood by the term "water can either be extracted or consumed"?

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Extraction: 

  • extracted
  • used
  • recycled or returned to rivers or aquifers
  • reused several times

Consumption: 

  • final use of water after which it cannot be reused


Extractions have increased much faster => indicator on hor much more intensively water can be exploited now

only a fraction of water is lost through evaporation (Verdunstung)

withdrawal is higher larger than consumption

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what are global challenges of the earth's water?

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  • climate change => loss in biodiversity
  • sustainability (SDGs)
  • water access and sanitation
  • property rights => war
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explain what a hedrosphere is

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Hydrosphere: region containing all water in the atmosphere + on the earth's surface in form of solid ice, liquidity or gas


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How is the water on the earth distributed?

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70% of the earth is covered by water

  • total global water: saltwater: 97,5%, freshwater 2,5% 
  • freshwater: 2/3 is in form of glaciers+permanent snow, 30% is groundwater, rest 1.2%
  •  surface water +mother freshwater: 69% as ground ice+permafrost, 21% lakes, rest in rivers, atmosphere, swamps, marshes, soild moisture 
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which continent uses/ withdraws the most water?

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Asian countries use much more water due to outsourced production to asia, less developed, more population


in general: industiralized countries use more water i´for the industry and only about 10% for the agriculture, while developing countries use over 90% for agriculture

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what is blue water?

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  • Liquid water moving above and below the ground
  • Includes surface water and groundwater 
  • Reuse until it reaches the sea
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what is green water?

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  • Soil moisture from rainfall and infiltrates the soil
  • Available for uptake by plants and evapo-transpiration
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what is the global water budget?

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own definition: the water available for human use 

  • 65% green water resource (esp. due to preciptation (Niederschlag)) consumption use via forests, grassland, wetland, and cropland
  • 35% blue water resource with 10% in consumptive use and 90% return flow


  • blue water resource from deep in the earth (saturated zone), green water resource from upper zone (unsaturated zone)
  • Green water flow up (condensation)
  • blue water flow to the oceans
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Q:

what is black water?

A:
  • Heavily polluted, harmful to humans and ecosystems 
  • Economically unusable
Q:

what are types of water use?

A:

Non-consumptive use

  • environmental flows
  • transportation
  • recreation

consumptive use = removal of water from the system; water pollution and quality deterioration

  • crop production
  • livestock rearing
  • urban domestic (hygiene)
  • urban industrial (fashion industry, cooling of machinery,..)
Q:

what is white water?

A:
  • • Non-productive part of green water 
  • Evaporates directly into the atmosphere (non-productive use) 
  • Includes losses from open water and soil surfaces
Q:

what is grey water?

A:
  • Usually wastewater 
  • Poor in quality, but usable for some purposes
Q:

What is understood by the term "water can either be extracted or consumed"?

A:

Extraction: 

  • extracted
  • used
  • recycled or returned to rivers or aquifers
  • reused several times

Consumption: 

  • final use of water after which it cannot be reused


Extractions have increased much faster => indicator on hor much more intensively water can be exploited now

only a fraction of water is lost through evaporation (Verdunstung)

withdrawal is higher larger than consumption

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

what are global challenges of the earth's water?

A:
  • climate change => loss in biodiversity
  • sustainability (SDGs)
  • water access and sanitation
  • property rights => war
Q:

explain what a hedrosphere is

A:

Hydrosphere: region containing all water in the atmosphere + on the earth's surface in form of solid ice, liquidity or gas


Q:

How is the water on the earth distributed?

A:

70% of the earth is covered by water

  • total global water: saltwater: 97,5%, freshwater 2,5% 
  • freshwater: 2/3 is in form of glaciers+permanent snow, 30% is groundwater, rest 1.2%
  •  surface water +mother freshwater: 69% as ground ice+permafrost, 21% lakes, rest in rivers, atmosphere, swamps, marshes, soild moisture 
Q:

which continent uses/ withdraws the most water?

A:

Asian countries use much more water due to outsourced production to asia, less developed, more population


in general: industiralized countries use more water i´for the industry and only about 10% for the agriculture, while developing countries use over 90% for agriculture

Q:

what is blue water?

A:
  • Liquid water moving above and below the ground
  • Includes surface water and groundwater 
  • Reuse until it reaches the sea
Q:

what is green water?

A:
  • Soil moisture from rainfall and infiltrates the soil
  • Available for uptake by plants and evapo-transpiration
Q:

what is the global water budget?

A:

own definition: the water available for human use 

  • 65% green water resource (esp. due to preciptation (Niederschlag)) consumption use via forests, grassland, wetland, and cropland
  • 35% blue water resource with 10% in consumptive use and 90% return flow


  • blue water resource from deep in the earth (saturated zone), green water resource from upper zone (unsaturated zone)
  • Green water flow up (condensation)
  • blue water flow to the oceans
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