Ling F2 at Leibniz Universität Hannover

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Ling F2 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover

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Semantics

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3 Types of Meaning 

Exemplary flashcards for Ling F2 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover on StudySmarter:

1.) Linguistic Meaning

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Exemplary flashcards for Ling F2 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover on StudySmarter:

Denotation (1.) Linguistic Meaning)

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Denotatum (1.) Linguistic Meaning 

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Reference (1.) Linguistic Meaning 

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Referent (1.) Linguistics Meaning 

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Remarks on Denotation and Reference (1.) Linguistic Meaning

Denotation and Reference are NO synonyms because...

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2.) Psychological Meaning 

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3.) Social Meaning 

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Which 3 definitions are needed for Meaning Relations

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Exemplary flashcards for Ling F2 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover on StudySmarter:

Lexeme 

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Exemplary flashcards for Ling F2 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover on StudySmarter:

Ling F2

Semantics

= Study of systematic ways in which language structures meaning (esp. in words & sentences)

- focus on meaning/concept (=signifie)

Ling F2

3 Types of Meaning 

1.) linguistic phenomenon: property of linguistic sign e.g. good 

2.) psychological phenomenon: ideas speakers associate with linguistic form e.g. summer (negative vs. bad connotation) 

3.) Phenomenon of Use/ Social Meaning: how a word form is used by speakers of a speech community (Prgamatics)

Ling F2

1.) Linguistic Meaning

= Relationship between linguistic sign and entities of the extralinguistic world 


Denotation and Reference

Linguistic sign (DOG) denotes to a Denotatum (Sets of DOGS: Snoopy, Poodle...)

Denotation= general meaning behind a word 


Referring expression (DOG) refers to a referent (DOG 1 individual member of denotatum OR DOG 2 all members)

Reference= Relationship between an expression and its referent (dependent on speech situation!)

Ling F2

Denotation (1.) Linguistic Meaning)

Denotation= relationship between linguistic sign and its denotatum

- Property of a word which is independent of its use in any concrete speech situation 

(= general meaning behind a word)

Ling F2

Denotatum (1.) Linguistic Meaning 

Denotatum= Set of objects/people etc. of the world to which a word/expression/linguistic sign can be applied 

e.g. Denotatum of DOG is identical with the set of all dogs which exist in reality or imagination of speaker 

Ling F2

Reference (1.) Linguistic Meaning 

Reference= relationship between expression and its referent

- Reference only holds with respect to particular speech situation (unlike Denotation!)

- makes it possible to identify particular member of the set (not always)

Ling F2

Referent (1.) Linguistics Meaning 

Referent= Member of the set referred to  e.g. Snoopy or Poodle

Ling F2

Remarks on Denotation and Reference (1.) Linguistic Meaning

Denotation and Reference are NO synonyms because...

=> 2 different ways in which language adopts the world


Denotation= to say what the word DOG denotes is to identify all those entities in the world that are correctly called DOG


Reference= to say what the word DOG refers to is to identify one specific entity of the category of DOGS (but not necessarily) 

Ling F2

2.) Psychological Meaning 

Connotation = another type of meaning 

- Associations speaker have with a word that goes beyond its meaning  

- Arises from properties of denotatum 

Not necessarily shared by whole speech community 


e.g. cowardly vs. prudent, unwise vs. foolish, cocky vs. confident 

Ling F2

3.) Social Meaning 

- Getting to know information about the speaker e.g. gender, race, age etc.

e.g. "Is it doctor in here?" -> African Amercian background 

Ling F2

Which 3 definitions are needed for Meaning Relations

  • 1.) Lexeme
  • 2.) Lexical Unit 
  • 3.) Lexical Form 

Ling F2

Lexeme 

Lexeme= the fundamental abstract unit of the lexicon of a language (head entry in a dictionary) e.g. table 

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