MICROBIOLOGY at Indian Institute Of Technology, Bombay | Flashcards & Summaries

Select your language

Suggested languages for you:
Log In Start studying!

Lernmaterialien für MICROBIOLOGY an der Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen MICROBIOLOGY Kurs an der Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay zu.

TESTE DEIN WISSEN
DARK FIELD/ DARK GROUND MICROSCOPE
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Special condenser with a central opaque area
  • This illuminates objects on a stage with a hollow cone of light
  • Used for seeing very slender bacteria, typically the spirochetes
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPE
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Used to observe unstained live cells
  • By staining, we are fixing the smear, and the organism on the smear will die.eg: Gram staining
  • It has a special component : Phase plate
  • As light passes through internal structures with different refractive indices, different phases are formed.
  • Difference in amplitude of light are converted into different intensities with help of phase plate.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
FLUORESCENT MICROSCOPE
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Used when fluorescent dyes are used to stain the cells
  • They absorb light of shorter wavelength and emits light of longer wavelength
  • Fluorochromes like auramine, rhodamine, acridine orange, etc have special property
Important components of fluorescent microscope : 
  • Dichroic mirror
  • Excitation filter
  • Emission filter
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • First introduced by Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll
  • Instead of light, electrons are used, which are generated by a special cathode
  • Instead of lenses, to focus the objects on stage, electromagnets are used
  • Scattered electrons are received on a fluorescent screen, on which image of internal structures are seen.
  • Resolution of electron microscope : 0.2-0.5nm which is 1/1000th of that of light microscope
  • Phosphotungstic acid : special type of negative staining to see selected structures
  • India Ink & Nigrosin are negative stains used in a Compound Microscope.
  • EM is of two types
  • 1. Scanning EM : To look for Surface morphology
  • 2. Transmission EM : To Study internal structure of cells
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
EXCEPTIONS TO GRAM STAIN
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Mycoplasma : Too small to be gram stained
  • Spirochetes : Too slender to be gram stained
  • Rickettsia  & Chlamydia : Minute Intracellular bacteria
  • Mycobacteria : They have complex cell wall covered with lipids which prevent entry of gram staining agents into cytoplasm.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
GRAM POSITIVE
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Cell wall has several layers of peptidoglycans
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
GRAM NEGATIVE 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Typical outer membrane 
  • Periplasmic space
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
POORLY GRAM STAINED BACTERIA
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Larger enough to be gram stained
  • But they do no take up counter stain safranin properly
  • Example : 
  • Legionella
  • Hemophilus
  • So instead of Safranin, Basic Fuschin stain is used which stains the cytoplasm pink.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
DIETERLE SILVER STAIN
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Legionella
  • Mycoplasma
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
WARTHIN STARRY SILVER STAIN
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Helicobacter
  • Bartonella
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
FONTANA SILVER STAIN
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Spirochetes
  • For Films
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
LEVADITE SILVER STAIN
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Spirochetes
  • For Tissue Sections
Lösung ausblenden
  • 1639 Karteikarten
  • 92 Studierende
  • 2 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen MICROBIOLOGY Kurs an der Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
DARK FIELD/ DARK GROUND MICROSCOPE
A:
  • Special condenser with a central opaque area
  • This illuminates objects on a stage with a hollow cone of light
  • Used for seeing very slender bacteria, typically the spirochetes
Q:
PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPE
A:
  • Used to observe unstained live cells
  • By staining, we are fixing the smear, and the organism on the smear will die.eg: Gram staining
  • It has a special component : Phase plate
  • As light passes through internal structures with different refractive indices, different phases are formed.
  • Difference in amplitude of light are converted into different intensities with help of phase plate.
Q:
FLUORESCENT MICROSCOPE
A:
  • Used when fluorescent dyes are used to stain the cells
  • They absorb light of shorter wavelength and emits light of longer wavelength
  • Fluorochromes like auramine, rhodamine, acridine orange, etc have special property
Important components of fluorescent microscope : 
  • Dichroic mirror
  • Excitation filter
  • Emission filter
Q:
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
A:
  • First introduced by Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll
  • Instead of light, electrons are used, which are generated by a special cathode
  • Instead of lenses, to focus the objects on stage, electromagnets are used
  • Scattered electrons are received on a fluorescent screen, on which image of internal structures are seen.
  • Resolution of electron microscope : 0.2-0.5nm which is 1/1000th of that of light microscope
  • Phosphotungstic acid : special type of negative staining to see selected structures
  • India Ink & Nigrosin are negative stains used in a Compound Microscope.
  • EM is of two types
  • 1. Scanning EM : To look for Surface morphology
  • 2. Transmission EM : To Study internal structure of cells
Q:
EXCEPTIONS TO GRAM STAIN
A:
  • Mycoplasma : Too small to be gram stained
  • Spirochetes : Too slender to be gram stained
  • Rickettsia  & Chlamydia : Minute Intracellular bacteria
  • Mycobacteria : They have complex cell wall covered with lipids which prevent entry of gram staining agents into cytoplasm.
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
GRAM POSITIVE
A:
  • Cell wall has several layers of peptidoglycans
Q:
GRAM NEGATIVE 
A:
  • Typical outer membrane 
  • Periplasmic space
Q:
POORLY GRAM STAINED BACTERIA
A:
  • Larger enough to be gram stained
  • But they do no take up counter stain safranin properly
  • Example : 
  • Legionella
  • Hemophilus
  • So instead of Safranin, Basic Fuschin stain is used which stains the cytoplasm pink.
Q:
DIETERLE SILVER STAIN
A:
  • Legionella
  • Mycoplasma
Q:
WARTHIN STARRY SILVER STAIN
A:
  • Helicobacter
  • Bartonella
Q:
FONTANA SILVER STAIN
A:
  • Spirochetes
  • For Films
Q:
LEVADITE SILVER STAIN
A:
  • Spirochetes
  • For Tissue Sections
MICROBIOLOGY

Erstelle und finde Lernmaterialien auf StudySmarter.

Greife kostenlos auf tausende geteilte Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Altklausuren und mehr zu.

Jetzt loslegen

Das sind die beliebtesten MICROBIOLOGY Kurse im gesamten StudySmarter Universum

Microbiology

San Beda College

Zum Kurs
Microbiology

University of the East, Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center

Zum Kurs
Microbiology

Cairo University

Zum Kurs
microbiology

Istanbul Medipol University

Zum Kurs
Microbiology

Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

Zum Kurs

Die all-in-one Lernapp für Studierende

Greife auf Millionen geteilter Lernmaterialien der StudySmarter Community zu
Kostenlos anmelden MICROBIOLOGY
Erstelle Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen mit den StudySmarter Tools
Kostenlos loslegen MICROBIOLOGY