Betriebssysteme at Humboldt-Universität Zu Berlin | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Betriebssysteme an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

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What is an Operating System?

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  • Software between applications and hardware
  • Responsible for providing execution environment to applications:
    • Providing abstractions
    • Protection (& Sharing)
    • Resource Management
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What do Operating Systems do?

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  • Provide abstractions
    • Raw hardware devices are difficult to use
    • Create virtual resources that are more usable
    • Make unreliable resources “reliable”
    • Make finite resources (e.g. memory, CPU) “infinite”
  • Protection (& Sharing)
    •  Run multiple applications safely
    • Mechanisms to prevent applications from crashing the system
    • Which user is allowed to use the system / to access a resource?
  • Resource Management
    • Resources are always limited
    • Make resource usage fair
    • Accounting
      May 2006 - 3
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Example Provide abstractions


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- File system instead of disk blocks
- 4GB continuous virtual memory vs. 1GB fragmented physical memory
- Reliable network connection instead of noisy network link

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Protection (& Sharing) Beispiel

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What if a program starts randomly accessing memory?

What if a user tries to consume all system resources?

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Aufgabe des BS: Resource Management

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What if many programs are running infinite loops?

What if many programs are requesting lots of memory?

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Resident Monitor

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primitive operating system in charge of executing the
batch job

-resided permanently in memory

- monitored the execution of each job



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Parts of a resident monitor

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- Control Card Interpreter
(read & carry out card instructions)
- Loader (load system programs
& applications into memory)
- Controls for peripheral devices

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Batch Processing

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combine multiple user jobs into a single batch job


- each user job would be executed in turn

- users received output after all jobs finished

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Spooling

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Simultaneous Peripheral Operation OnLine


- Overlap I/O of one job with computation of another job.
While executing one job, the OS:
- reads next job from card reader into a storage area on the disk
(job queue).
- outputs printout of previous job from disk to printer.

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Context Switch

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process of storing the state of a process or thread, so that it can be restored and resume execution at a later point. 

This allows multiple processes to share a single CPU

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Multi-Programming

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multiple jobs are kept in main
memory at the same time.

CPU is assigned sequentially, i.e. when a job finishes another can
start immediately, while the free memory partition is being reloaded.

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Programmable Computer

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- CPU:
- Arithmetic Logic Unit
- Control Unit


- Memory Unit
- I/O Devices
- Busses


- had to sign up to use for allotted time

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Q:

What is an Operating System?

A:
  • Software between applications and hardware
  • Responsible for providing execution environment to applications:
    • Providing abstractions
    • Protection (& Sharing)
    • Resource Management
Q:

What do Operating Systems do?

A:
  • Provide abstractions
    • Raw hardware devices are difficult to use
    • Create virtual resources that are more usable
    • Make unreliable resources “reliable”
    • Make finite resources (e.g. memory, CPU) “infinite”
  • Protection (& Sharing)
    •  Run multiple applications safely
    • Mechanisms to prevent applications from crashing the system
    • Which user is allowed to use the system / to access a resource?
  • Resource Management
    • Resources are always limited
    • Make resource usage fair
    • Accounting
      May 2006 - 3
Q:

Example Provide abstractions


A:

- File system instead of disk blocks
- 4GB continuous virtual memory vs. 1GB fragmented physical memory
- Reliable network connection instead of noisy network link

Q:

Protection (& Sharing) Beispiel

A:

What if a program starts randomly accessing memory?

What if a user tries to consume all system resources?

Q:

Aufgabe des BS: Resource Management

A:

What if many programs are running infinite loops?

What if many programs are requesting lots of memory?

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Resident Monitor

A:

primitive operating system in charge of executing the
batch job

-resided permanently in memory

- monitored the execution of each job



Q:

Parts of a resident monitor

A:

- Control Card Interpreter
(read & carry out card instructions)
- Loader (load system programs
& applications into memory)
- Controls for peripheral devices

Q:

Batch Processing

A:

combine multiple user jobs into a single batch job


- each user job would be executed in turn

- users received output after all jobs finished

Q:

Spooling

A:

Simultaneous Peripheral Operation OnLine


- Overlap I/O of one job with computation of another job.
While executing one job, the OS:
- reads next job from card reader into a storage area on the disk
(job queue).
- outputs printout of previous job from disk to printer.

Q:

Context Switch

A:

process of storing the state of a process or thread, so that it can be restored and resume execution at a later point. 

This allows multiple processes to share a single CPU

Q:

Multi-Programming

A:

multiple jobs are kept in main
memory at the same time.

CPU is assigned sequentially, i.e. when a job finishes another can
start immediately, while the free memory partition is being reloaded.

Q:

Programmable Computer

A:

- CPU:
- Arithmetic Logic Unit
- Control Unit


- Memory Unit
- I/O Devices
- Busses


- had to sign up to use for allotted time

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