Biochemistry at Hochschule Rhein-Waal

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Simplest amino acid is

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Explain the structure of a peptide bond.

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Lectins 
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Exemplary flashcards for Biochemistry at the Hochschule Rhein-Waal on StudySmarter:

How can enzyme activity be decreased?    

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How are enzyme inhibitors classified? 

Exemplary flashcards for Biochemistry at the Hochschule Rhein-Waal on StudySmarter:

How do reversible inhibitors work? 

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What is IEF and how does it work? 
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Exemplary flashcards for Biochemistry at the Hochschule Rhein-Waal on StudySmarter:

How do irreversible inhibitors work? 

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What is the advantage of IEF?

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What is dialysis and how does it work? 

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What is the peroxide value used for ? 
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What are enzymes? 

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Exemplary flashcards for Biochemistry at the Hochschule Rhein-Waal on StudySmarter:

Biochemistry

Simplest amino acid is
Valine

Biochemistry

Explain the structure of a peptide bond.

Covalent chemical bond linking C1 (of an amino acid) – N2 (of another amino acid) = condensation reaction!

Biochemistry

Lectins 
Specific carbohydrate-binding proteins

Biochemistry

How can enzyme activity be decreased?    
By inhibitors

Biochemistry

How are enzyme inhibitors classified? 
They are classified based on their mode of action

Biochemistry

How do reversible inhibitors work? 
- They bind to the enzyme in a non-covalent fashion

Biochemistry

What is IEF and how does it work? 
- Isoelectric focusing is used for separation of proteins according to their isoelectric points (pI)

- Proteins are separated in a polyacrylamide gel with a pH gradient (usually created by aliphatic ampholytes)

- once an electric field is applied, the proteins migrate according to their mass to charge ratio

- negatively charged proteins migrate toward the anode and positively charged molecules towards the cathode

- As the proteins travel through the gel, their charge to mass ratio is decreasing due to the pH gradient in the gel

- When the overall net charge of the protein is zero, it has reached the pH of its pI and is immobilized

- As a result, all proteins become focused into a sharp stationary band with each protein positioned at a point in the pH gradient corresponding to its pI  

Biochemistry

How do irreversible inhibitors work? 
By binding to enzyme in an covalent interaction. 

Biochemistry

What is the advantage of IEF?
- capable of extremely high resolution with proteins differing by a single charge being fractionated into separate bands

- often used as first step in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, in which proteins are first separated by their pI value and then further separated by molecular weight through SDS-PAGE 

Biochemistry

What is dialysis and how does it work? 
- separates molecules in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane

- in laboratory, a tubular semipermeable membrane made of cellulose acetate or nitrocellulose is used

- due to pore size of membrane, small molecules can freely diffuse across the membrane unit equilibrium is obtained, while large molecules cannot pass the membrane

- commonly used for purification of proteins, e.g. to separate protein of interest from other molecule, such as significally bigger or smaller proteins or buffer components like salts and detergent, or for the removal of urea from blood 

Biochemistry

What is the peroxide value used for ? 
- gives a measure of the extent to which a fat or oil sample has undergone oxidation

- is used to determine the rancidity of fat or oil

- defined as amount peroxide oxygen per kilogram of fat or oil

- determined by measuring the amount of iodine which if formed by reaction of peroxides with iodide ions

- peroxide value is determined by measuring the amount of iodine which is formed by the reaction peroxides (formed in fat or oil) with iodide solution

Biochemistry

What are enzymes? 
- catalysts which increase rate of reaction without being chemically changed themselves by stabilizing transition state (enzymes can enhance reaction by factors over 1000)

- highly specific for certain substrates and their activity depends on temperature, ionic strength, pH and buffer composition


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