Wildbiologie at Hochschule für nachhaltige Entwicklung

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Types of senses

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Resorption

Exemplary flashcards for Wildbiologie at the Hochschule für nachhaltige Entwicklung on StudySmarter:

Lipid digestion

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Exemplary flashcards for Wildbiologie at the Hochschule für nachhaltige Entwicklung on StudySmarter:

Hindgut

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Herbivores

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Smell

Exemplary flashcards for Wildbiologie at the Hochschule für nachhaltige Entwicklung on StudySmarter:

Rodents

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Information

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Taste

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Visual sense

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Gastrovascular system

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Digestion

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Exemplary flashcards for Wildbiologie at the Hochschule für nachhaltige Entwicklung on StudySmarter:

Wildbiologie

Types of senses

•Chemical senses (molecules - smell, taste)

•Visual sense (light waves - see) •Temperature sense (radiation - feel) •Mechanical sense (mechanical - touch, hear)

Wildbiologie

Resorption

- Products of enzymatic digestion (amino acids, lipids, sugars) are resorbed by midgut cells

-> usually not a passive procedure (e.g. following a concentration gradient; only insects do this with glucose)

-> in vertebrates, sugars, and amino acids are actively transported (by cell membrane carrier proteins) into the gut cell and on to the bloodstream)


- Area for resorption greatly enlarged by surface appendices (villi) and microvilli of gut cells

Wildbiologie

Lipid digestion

...begins in the midgut only

pH is raised again, lipids are emulsified (with liquid from the gall bladder)

Wildbiologie

Hindgut

- Peristaltic drives remaining food into hindgut (rectum)

- Water and various ions are resorbed here, and many bacteria are located here (e.g. bacteria producing vitamines – and gases, too)

- Length of gut (= duration of digestion) related to the composition of food (and its digestibility)

- Carnivores have much shorter gut systems compared to herbivores Relation gut length / body length: Cat 4:1, Human 6:1, racoon 8:1 (omnivore), Cow 21:1

->Midgut („Dünndarm“) is not much different (where food particles are resorbed)

->The more plant material is consumed (cellulose!), the longer is the hindgut (e.g. blind gut!)

Wildbiologie

Herbivores

- Pregastric herbivores: Ruminants, Kangaroo

-> Symbiotic digestion of food performed before the stomach and gut („Labmagen“)


- Postgastric herbivores: Rabbit, Hare, Koala

-> Symbiotic microorganisms are located in the blind gut

Wildbiologie

Smell

• distant sense close

• molecules (in high dilution: gases, liquids) liquids

• in nose / on antennae

• primary cells (fast) secondary cells

• many specializations

Wildbiologie

Rodents

In rodents, the symbiotic microorganisms are located in the blind gut. ->Blind gut leads into hindgut


In the hindgut, only a minor part of the nutrients can be resorbed (taken up into the body of the rodent) – very inefficient!


Rodents therefore produce a special feces („Kot“), rich in nutrients and originating from the blind gut... ..which then must be eaten again = Caecotrophy

 Rodents therefore produce two kinds of feces !!

Wildbiologie

Information

Information is gathered by specialized sensory cells and translated into uniform electrical impulses .

- These impulses are conducted by the nervous system

- Sensory cells are often concentrated in sensory organs at the front end of the animal.

Wildbiologie

Taste

- liquids /solutions

 - on tongue/feet

- secondary cells

- 5 types only: bitter / sour / salty / sweet / umami

Wildbiologie

Visual sense

 Perception of electromagnetic waves (visible light)

Light is directed through the optical apparatus (lens..) and focussed onto the retina. Retina is a layer of sensory cells (two types)

- highest concentration of sensory cells: Fovea

- no sensory cells: optic nerve

Wildbiologie

Gastrovascular system

Coelenterates (e.g. jelly fish) and many flat worms (Plathelminths) have a gastrovascular system (only one opening (mouth).

Wildbiologie

Digestion

Food particles are prepared for uptake into the animal body (cells) -> Food must be broken up = mechanical and chemical digestion

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