Epidemiology And Applied Statistics at Hochschule Fresenius | Flashcards & Summaries

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Key Terms (Memory help)

Population (Universe)

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All items of interest

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Negative predictive value (NPV)

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The proportion of patients who test negative who are actually free of the disease

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Definition: What is Epidemiology?

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Epidemiological research is the study of the distribution and the determinants of disease frequency in naturally occurring groups (populations)

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Quantitative data Discrete or continuous

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Discrete: having a fixed number of values

• – Examples: staff members, number of children

Continuous: having an infinite number of values

• – Examples: working time, income, weight, temperature
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Outcome of risk-ratio regard to 1?

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• Risk ratio (relative risk) > 1, then exposure leads to a higher risk.
• Risk ratio (relative risk) < 1, then exposure leads to a lower risk.
• Risk ratio (relative risk) = 1, then exposure makes no difference for risk.
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Parameter

Key Terms (Memory help)

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Parameter

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PICO(S)

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• P: Population Describe as specifically as possible
• I: Intervention Describe the intervention of interest, this may be a treatment, risk factor, perception
• C: Comparison Use a comparison if it fits to do so, this may be a alternative, a placebo, usual care
• O: Outcome What is the clinical outcome, how measured add the timeframe if important
• S: What type of study?
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Qualitative data: Nominal

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Data which fall into mutually exclusive categories (discrete) for which there is no natural order

A nominal scale classifies data into distinct categories in which no ranking is implied.

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Types of bias

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Selection bias

Allocation bias

Data collection methods (measurement bias)

Attrition bias: Withdrawals and drop-outs

Blinding (detection bias)

Confounding

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Evaluate: Quality of clinical trials

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• The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials)
• Statement provides standards for the reporting of clinical trials, the following provide standards for the reporting of meta- analyses
• Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses
• Quality scoring
• Critical appraisal
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Types of data or variables (overview)

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Quantitative (numerical)

• – Discrete
• – Continuous (interval or ratio)

Qualitative (categorical)

• – Nominal (categorical)
• – Ordinal (rank ordered categories)
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Key Terms (Memory help)

Statistics

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Q:

Key Terms (Memory help)

Population (Universe)

A:

All items of interest

Q:

Negative predictive value (NPV)

A:

The proportion of patients who test negative who are actually free of the disease

Q:

Definition: What is Epidemiology?

A:

Epidemiological research is the study of the distribution and the determinants of disease frequency in naturally occurring groups (populations)

Q:

Quantitative data Discrete or continuous

A:

Discrete: having a fixed number of values

• – Examples: staff members, number of children

Continuous: having an infinite number of values

• – Examples: working time, income, weight, temperature
Q:

Outcome of risk-ratio regard to 1?

A:
• Risk ratio (relative risk) > 1, then exposure leads to a higher risk.
• Risk ratio (relative risk) < 1, then exposure leads to a lower risk.
• Risk ratio (relative risk) = 1, then exposure makes no difference for risk.
Q:

Parameter

Key Terms (Memory help)

A:

Parameter

Q:

PICO(S)

A:
• P: Population Describe as specifically as possible
• I: Intervention Describe the intervention of interest, this may be a treatment, risk factor, perception
• C: Comparison Use a comparison if it fits to do so, this may be a alternative, a placebo, usual care
• O: Outcome What is the clinical outcome, how measured add the timeframe if important
• S: What type of study?
Q:

Qualitative data: Nominal

A:

Data which fall into mutually exclusive categories (discrete) for which there is no natural order

A nominal scale classifies data into distinct categories in which no ranking is implied.

Q:

Types of bias

A:

Selection bias

Allocation bias

Data collection methods (measurement bias)

Attrition bias: Withdrawals and drop-outs

Blinding (detection bias)

Confounding

Q:

Evaluate: Quality of clinical trials

A:
• The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials)
• Statement provides standards for the reporting of clinical trials, the following provide standards for the reporting of meta- analyses
• Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses
• Quality scoring
• Critical appraisal
Q:

Types of data or variables (overview)

A:

Quantitative (numerical)

• – Discrete
• – Continuous (interval or ratio)

Qualitative (categorical)

• – Nominal (categorical)
• – Ordinal (rank ordered categories)
Q:

Key Terms (Memory help)

Statistics

A:

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