Epidemiology And Applied Statistics at Hochschule Fresenius | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Epidemiology and Applied statistics an der Hochschule Fresenius

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Key Terms (Memory help)

Population (Universe)

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All items of interest

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Negative predictive value (NPV)

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The proportion of patients who test negative who are actually free of the disease

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Definition: What is Epidemiology?

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Epidemiological research is the study of the distribution and the determinants of disease frequency in naturally occurring groups (populations)

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Quantitative data Discrete or continuous

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Discrete: having a fixed number of values 

  • – Examples: staff members, number of children 


Continuous: having an infinite number of values 

  • – Examples: working time, income, weight, temperature
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Outcome of risk-ratio regard to 1?

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  • Risk ratio (relative risk) > 1, then exposure leads to a higher risk.
  • Risk ratio (relative risk) < 1, then exposure leads to a lower risk.
  • Risk ratio (relative risk) = 1, then exposure makes no difference for risk.
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Parameter

Key Terms (Memory help)

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Parameter

Summary measure about population

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PICO(S)


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  • P: Population Describe as specifically as possible
  • I: Intervention Describe the intervention of interest, this may be a treatment, risk factor, perception
  • C: Comparison Use a comparison if it fits to do so, this may be a alternative, a placebo, usual care
  • O: Outcome What is the clinical outcome, how measured add the timeframe if important
  • S: What type of study? 
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Qualitative data: Nominal

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Data which fall into mutually exclusive categories (discrete) for which there is no natural order

A nominal scale classifies data into distinct categories in which no ranking is implied.

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Types of bias

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Selection bias

Allocation bias

Data collection methods (measurement bias)

Attrition bias: Withdrawals and drop-outs

Blinding (detection bias)

Confounding

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Evaluate: Quality of clinical trials

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  • The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) 
    • Statement provides standards for the reporting of clinical trials, the following provide standards for the reporting of meta- analyses
  • Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses
  • Quality scoring
  • Critical appraisal
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Types of data or variables (overview)

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Quantitative (numerical) 

  • – Discrete 
  • – Continuous (interval or ratio)


Qualitative (categorical) 

  • – Nominal (categorical) 
  • – Ordinal (rank ordered categories)
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Key Terms (Memory help)

Statistics

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Summary measure about sample

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  • 180277 Karteikarten
  • 3402 Studierende
  • 63 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Epidemiology and Applied statistics Kurs an der Hochschule Fresenius - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Key Terms (Memory help)

Population (Universe)

A:

All items of interest

Q:

Negative predictive value (NPV)

A:

The proportion of patients who test negative who are actually free of the disease

Q:

Definition: What is Epidemiology?

A:

Epidemiological research is the study of the distribution and the determinants of disease frequency in naturally occurring groups (populations)

Q:

Quantitative data Discrete or continuous

A:

Discrete: having a fixed number of values 

  • – Examples: staff members, number of children 


Continuous: having an infinite number of values 

  • – Examples: working time, income, weight, temperature
Q:

Outcome of risk-ratio regard to 1?

A:
  • Risk ratio (relative risk) > 1, then exposure leads to a higher risk.
  • Risk ratio (relative risk) < 1, then exposure leads to a lower risk.
  • Risk ratio (relative risk) = 1, then exposure makes no difference for risk.
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Q:

Parameter

Key Terms (Memory help)

A:

Parameter

Summary measure about population

Q:

PICO(S)


A:
  • P: Population Describe as specifically as possible
  • I: Intervention Describe the intervention of interest, this may be a treatment, risk factor, perception
  • C: Comparison Use a comparison if it fits to do so, this may be a alternative, a placebo, usual care
  • O: Outcome What is the clinical outcome, how measured add the timeframe if important
  • S: What type of study? 
Q:

Qualitative data: Nominal

A:

Data which fall into mutually exclusive categories (discrete) for which there is no natural order

A nominal scale classifies data into distinct categories in which no ranking is implied.

Q:

Types of bias

A:

Selection bias

Allocation bias

Data collection methods (measurement bias)

Attrition bias: Withdrawals and drop-outs

Blinding (detection bias)

Confounding

Q:

Evaluate: Quality of clinical trials

A:
  • The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) 
    • Statement provides standards for the reporting of clinical trials, the following provide standards for the reporting of meta- analyses
  • Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses
  • Quality scoring
  • Critical appraisal
Q:

Types of data or variables (overview)

A:

Quantitative (numerical) 

  • – Discrete 
  • – Continuous (interval or ratio)


Qualitative (categorical) 

  • – Nominal (categorical) 
  • – Ordinal (rank ordered categories)
Q:

Key Terms (Memory help)

Statistics

A:

Summary measure about sample

Epidemiology and Applied statistics

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