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Lernmaterialien für Data Analysis and Application of Quantitative Methods an der Hochschule Fresenius

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Main parameters for Variation, spread or dispersion?

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Standard deviation: Measure of dispersion around the mean. In a
normal distribution, 68% of cases fall within one standard deviation
of the mean and 95% of cases fall within two standard deviations.

Variance: Measure of dispersion around the mean, equal to the sum
of squared deviations from the mean divided by one less than the
number of cases.

The variance is measured in units that are the square of those of
the variable itself.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Main parameters for Variation, spread or dispersion (2)

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  • Range: The difference between the largest and smallest values of a
    numeric variable, the maximum minus the minimum
  • Minimum: The smallest value of a numeric variable
  • Maximum: The largest value of a numeric variable
  • S. E. mean: A measure of how much the value of the mean may
    vary from sample to sample taken from the same distribution. It can
    be used to roughly compare the observed mean to a hypothesized
    value (that is, you can conclude the two values are different if the
    ratio of the difference to the standard error is less than -2 or greater
    than +2).
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Main parameters of Distribution

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Skewness and kurtosis are statistics that describe the shape and
symmetry of the distribution.
Skewness

  • A measure of the asymmetry of a distribution. The normal distribution is
    symmetric and has a skewness value of 0.
  • A distribution with a significant positive skewness has a long right tail. A
    distribution with a significant negative skewness has a long left tail.
  • As a guideline, a skewness value far away from 0 indicates a departure
    from symmetry

Kurtosis

  • A measure of the extent to which observations cluster around a central point
  • For a normal distribution, the value of the kurtosis statistic is zero
  • Positive kurtosis indicates that the observations cluster more and have
    longer tails than those in the normal distribution
  • Negative kurtosis indicates that the observations cluster less and have
    shorter tails
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explore procedure

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Produces summary statistics and graphical displays, either for all of
your cases or separately for groups of cases
To use only for interval/ratio scaled variables
There are many reasons for using the EXPLORE
procedure

  • data screening
  • outlier identification
  • description
  • assumption checking
  • characterizing differences among subpopulations (groups of cases)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explore statistics 

M-estimators

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

M-estimators: Robust alternatives to the sample mean and median for

estimating the location

  • The estimators calculated differ in the weights they apply to cases.
    Huber’s M-estimator, Andrews’ wave estimator, Hampel’s redescending M-estimator, and Tukey’s biweight estimator are displayed.
  • Outliers: Displays the five largest and five smallest values with case
    labels
  • Percentiles: Displays the values for the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th,
    90th, and 95th percentiles
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Main Characteristics for Boxplots

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  • A boxplot consists of box and 2 tails 
  • The horizontal line inside the box tells the position of the median and its upper and lower boundaries are its upper and lower quartiles 
  • The tails run to the most extreme values 
  • The boxplot in sum shows structure of the data along with its skewness and spread
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How to build a table in Crosstabs

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  • Independent variables should be column variables
  • Dependent variables should be in rows
  • If not looking at independent and dependent variable relationships, use the variable that can logically be said to influence the other as your column variable
  • Using this rule calculate column percentages to interpret your results

Example: If we were looking at the relationship between gender and voting, gender would be the column variable and voting would be the row variable. Logically gender can determine voting. Voting does not determine your gender.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Recoding variables

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  • Recoding into different variables
  • Recoding into the same variable
  • It is recommended to use recoding into different variables and not using the into same variable option
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Sort cases

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  • This procedure sorts cases (rows) of the data file based on the values of one or more sorting variables
  • You can sort cases in ascending or descending order
  • If you select multiple sort variables, cases are sorted by each variable within categories of the preceding variable on the sort list
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Sort variables

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • You can sort the variables in the active dataset based on the values of any of the variable attributes (e.g., variable name, data type, measurement level), including custom variable attributes
  • Values can be sorted in ascending or descending order
  • You can save the original (pre-sorted) variable order in a custom variable attribute
  • Sorting by values of custom variable attributes is limited to custom variable attributes that are currently visible in Variable View
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Weight Cases

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Gives cases different weights (by simulated replication) for statistical analysis
  • The values of the weighting variable should indicate the number of observations represented by single cases in your data file or gross up the sample
  • Cases with zero, negative, or missing values for the weighting variable are excluded from analysis
  • Fractional values are valid; they are used exactly where this is meaningful and most likely where cases are tabulated
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The main parameters for Central tendency?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Mean: Measure of central tendency; The arithmetic average, the
    sum divided by the number of cases
  • Median: The value above and below which half of the cases fall, the
    50th percentile. The median is a measure of central tendency not
    sensitive to outlying values
  • Mode: The most frequently occurring value. If several values share
    the greatest frequency of occurrence, each of them is a mode. The
    Frequencies procedure reports only the smallest of such multiple
    modes.
  • Sum: The sum or total of the values, across all cases with non
    missing values.
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  • 196466 Karteikarten
  • 3545 Studierende
  • 63 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Data Analysis and Application of Quantitative Methods Kurs an der Hochschule Fresenius - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Main parameters for Variation, spread or dispersion?

A:

Standard deviation: Measure of dispersion around the mean. In a
normal distribution, 68% of cases fall within one standard deviation
of the mean and 95% of cases fall within two standard deviations.

Variance: Measure of dispersion around the mean, equal to the sum
of squared deviations from the mean divided by one less than the
number of cases.

The variance is measured in units that are the square of those of
the variable itself.

Q:

Main parameters for Variation, spread or dispersion (2)

A:
  • Range: The difference between the largest and smallest values of a
    numeric variable, the maximum minus the minimum
  • Minimum: The smallest value of a numeric variable
  • Maximum: The largest value of a numeric variable
  • S. E. mean: A measure of how much the value of the mean may
    vary from sample to sample taken from the same distribution. It can
    be used to roughly compare the observed mean to a hypothesized
    value (that is, you can conclude the two values are different if the
    ratio of the difference to the standard error is less than -2 or greater
    than +2).
Q:

Main parameters of Distribution

A:

Skewness and kurtosis are statistics that describe the shape and
symmetry of the distribution.
Skewness

  • A measure of the asymmetry of a distribution. The normal distribution is
    symmetric and has a skewness value of 0.
  • A distribution with a significant positive skewness has a long right tail. A
    distribution with a significant negative skewness has a long left tail.
  • As a guideline, a skewness value far away from 0 indicates a departure
    from symmetry

Kurtosis

  • A measure of the extent to which observations cluster around a central point
  • For a normal distribution, the value of the kurtosis statistic is zero
  • Positive kurtosis indicates that the observations cluster more and have
    longer tails than those in the normal distribution
  • Negative kurtosis indicates that the observations cluster less and have
    shorter tails
Q:

Explore procedure

A:

Produces summary statistics and graphical displays, either for all of
your cases or separately for groups of cases
To use only for interval/ratio scaled variables
There are many reasons for using the EXPLORE
procedure

  • data screening
  • outlier identification
  • description
  • assumption checking
  • characterizing differences among subpopulations (groups of cases)
Q:

Explore statistics 

M-estimators

A:

M-estimators: Robust alternatives to the sample mean and median for

estimating the location

  • The estimators calculated differ in the weights they apply to cases.
    Huber’s M-estimator, Andrews’ wave estimator, Hampel’s redescending M-estimator, and Tukey’s biweight estimator are displayed.
  • Outliers: Displays the five largest and five smallest values with case
    labels
  • Percentiles: Displays the values for the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th,
    90th, and 95th percentiles
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Main Characteristics for Boxplots

A:
  • A boxplot consists of box and 2 tails 
  • The horizontal line inside the box tells the position of the median and its upper and lower boundaries are its upper and lower quartiles 
  • The tails run to the most extreme values 
  • The boxplot in sum shows structure of the data along with its skewness and spread
Q:

How to build a table in Crosstabs

A:
  • Independent variables should be column variables
  • Dependent variables should be in rows
  • If not looking at independent and dependent variable relationships, use the variable that can logically be said to influence the other as your column variable
  • Using this rule calculate column percentages to interpret your results

Example: If we were looking at the relationship between gender and voting, gender would be the column variable and voting would be the row variable. Logically gender can determine voting. Voting does not determine your gender.

Q:

Recoding variables

A:
  • Recoding into different variables
  • Recoding into the same variable
  • It is recommended to use recoding into different variables and not using the into same variable option
Q:

Sort cases

A:
  • This procedure sorts cases (rows) of the data file based on the values of one or more sorting variables
  • You can sort cases in ascending or descending order
  • If you select multiple sort variables, cases are sorted by each variable within categories of the preceding variable on the sort list
Q:

Sort variables

A:
  • You can sort the variables in the active dataset based on the values of any of the variable attributes (e.g., variable name, data type, measurement level), including custom variable attributes
  • Values can be sorted in ascending or descending order
  • You can save the original (pre-sorted) variable order in a custom variable attribute
  • Sorting by values of custom variable attributes is limited to custom variable attributes that are currently visible in Variable View
Q:

Weight Cases

A:
  • Gives cases different weights (by simulated replication) for statistical analysis
  • The values of the weighting variable should indicate the number of observations represented by single cases in your data file or gross up the sample
  • Cases with zero, negative, or missing values for the weighting variable are excluded from analysis
  • Fractional values are valid; they are used exactly where this is meaningful and most likely where cases are tabulated
Q:

The main parameters for Central tendency?

A:
  • Mean: Measure of central tendency; The arithmetic average, the
    sum divided by the number of cases
  • Median: The value above and below which half of the cases fall, the
    50th percentile. The median is a measure of central tendency not
    sensitive to outlying values
  • Mode: The most frequently occurring value. If several values share
    the greatest frequency of occurrence, each of them is a mode. The
    Frequencies procedure reports only the smallest of such multiple
    modes.
  • Sum: The sum or total of the values, across all cases with non
    missing values.
Data Analysis and Application of Quantitative Methods

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