MolGen at Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

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DNA bases

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

thymine <--> uracil

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the genetic code

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eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes

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eukaryotic translation initiation

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prokaryotic translation initiation

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transcription termination

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ribosome sites

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epistasis

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important cyclins and CDKs in general

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aneuploidy

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translocation

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Exemplary flashcards for MolGen at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

MolGen

DNA bases
purine (two rings) with carboxyl group: guanine pyrimidine (one ring)with two carboxyl groups: thymine (one=cytosine)

MolGen

thymine <--> uracil
thymine has one more methyl group (left of upper carboxyl group)

MolGen

the genetic code
...is redundant or degenerate

MolGen

eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes
eukaryotic: 80s, consist of 40s and 60s prokaryotic: 70s, consist of 30s and 50s

MolGen

eukaryotic translation initiation
initiator tRNA carrying methionine binds to small ribosomal subunit small ribosomal subunit binds to 5' end of the mRNA and scans it until initiation codon is found then the large ribosomal subunit binds and joins the complex

MolGen

prokaryotic translation initiation
small ribosomal subunit binds to shine delgarno sequence with the help of initiation factors and 16 s rRNA when small ribosomal subunit is bound, fmet tRNA binds (N-formyl-methionine, special form of methionine that is only used for initiation codon, internal methionine do not have a formyl) large ribosomal subunit binds

MolGen

transcription termination
hairpin loop forms in mRNA due to inverted repeats, in bacteria sometimes Rho factor is required

MolGen

ribosome sites
E, P, A initiator methionine tRNA binds to p site, new tRNA binds to A site, complex moves so that first tRNA moves into E site and the second moves into P, the A side is empty and bind a new tRNA

MolGen

epistasis
phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes' e.g. labradors coat colors, if dog is recessive homozygous for the modifier gene (ee), the fur will be golden regardless of the presence of the allele for dark fur color Bb=black BB=black bb=brown ee=golden Ee=brown/black EE=brown/black corn snake: "normal"genetics, no influence of independent genes on each other

MolGen

important cyclins and CDKs in general
Cyclin A B D E CDK 1 2 4 5

MolGen

aneuploidy
abnormal number of chromosomes, results from nondisjunction during mitosis (less severe) or meiosis (more severe) trisomy or monosomy

MolGen

translocation
part of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to a non-homologous chromosome

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