MolGen - Haddouti at Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

Flashcards and summaries for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

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Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

1. How can errors (such as those caused by reactive oxygen species) be prevented? 

2. What is the important reaction

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

How can aluminium cytotoxicity be prevented in human skin fibroblast cultures

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

1. What are superoxide radicals

2. How are they produced

3. In which biological system may they be generated? 

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

1. In which wavelength field is the mutagenic field localized? 

2. Which kind of rays does it include? 

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

1. How does ionizing radiation (X-rays, gamma rays, ...) damage the DNA? 


2. When can it kill cells? 

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

How does UV light damage the DNA? Which bases are included?  

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Which kind of dimers are especially created by UV light? 

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What are photolyases

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Photolyase is found in ... ? 

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What are the two types of thymidine dimers

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

1. What is the major carcinogenic lesion in the DNA?

2. What is it induced by? 

3. Which "enzyme" repairs it? How?

4. Why is it not a real enzyme

Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

1. What does DNA polymerase III use to cut off the wrong base

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Exemplary flashcards for MolGen - Haddouti at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

MolGen - Haddouti

1. How can errors (such as those caused by reactive oxygen species) be prevented? 

2. What is the important reaction

1. By enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase


2. Superoxide radicals are converted to water by those enzymes

MolGen - Haddouti

How can aluminium cytotoxicity be prevented in human skin fibroblast cultures

Prevention by superoxide dismutase, catalase and vitamin E and C

MolGen - Haddouti

1. What are superoxide radicals

2. How are they produced

3. In which biological system may they be generated? 

1. Highly reactive compounds. 


2. Produced, when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. 


3. They may be generated during the oxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin. 

MolGen - Haddouti

1. In which wavelength field is the mutagenic field localized? 

2. Which kind of rays does it include? 

1. The mutagenic field is localized within the short wavelength field.


2. It includes gamma rays, X-rays, UV-rays

MolGen - Haddouti

1. How does ionizing radiation (X-rays, gamma rays, ...) damage the DNA? 


2. When can it kill cells? 

1. Ionizing radiation breaks covalent bonds including those in DNA (ss and ds breaks). 


2. Ionizing radiation has a cumulative effect and kills cells at high doses

MolGen - Haddouti

How does UV light damage the DNA? Which bases are included?  

UV light causes pyrimidines (T, C, U) to form abnormal dimer bonds and bulges in the DNA strand. 

MolGen - Haddouti

Which kind of dimers are especially created by UV light? 

Thymine dimers. 

MolGen - Haddouti

What are photolyases

Photolyases are enzymes, that absorb energy from visible light and then break the bonds between dimers.

MolGen - Haddouti

Photolyase is found in ... ? 

Bacteria 

MolGen - Haddouti

What are the two types of thymidine dimers

1. Cyclobutane 


2. 6-4 phosphobonds

MolGen - Haddouti

1. What is the major carcinogenic lesion in the DNA?

2. What is it induced by? 

3. Which "enzyme" repairs it? How?

4. Why is it not a real enzyme

1. The major carcinogenic lesion ind DNA is the O(6)-alkyl-guanine or O(6)-methyl-guanine.


2. It is induced by alkylating mutagens. 


3. It ir repaired by O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) by transferring the methyl group to its cysteine


4. The 'enzyme' is not regenerated after (= suicide enzyme). 

MolGen - Haddouti

1. What does DNA polymerase III use to cut off the wrong base

It uses 3'-exonuclease activity. 

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