Genetic Engineering at Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

Flashcards and summaries for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Define "Recombinant DNA". 

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Define "Genetic Engineering"

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

When did Genetic Engineering start? 

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What is direct evolution and which steps are involved? 

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What where earlier techniques for introduction of random mutagenesis and how are we doing it nowadays?

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What is molecular cloning

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Which steps are involved in molecular cloning

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

When is a organism genetically modified?

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

When and for what can GMOs be used? 

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

In general, what are the advantages and disadvantages of microorganisms like E. coli as GMOs? 

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What are the challenges of using cell cultures as GMOs? 

Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What are transgenic animals?

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Exemplary flashcards for Genetic Engineering at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Genetic Engineering

Define "Recombinant DNA". 

Any artificially produced DNA-molecule which brings together DNA sequences that are not usually found together in nature. 

Genetic Engineering

Define "Genetic Engineering"

Techniques and procedures that are necessary to produce recombinant DNA and to transfer it into living cells.

Genetic Engineering

When did Genetic Engineering start? 

In 1972.

Genetic Engineering

What is direct evolution and which steps are involved? 

Direct evolution is a speed up evolution in a test tube and involves the following steps: 


1. DNA isolation 

2. Introduction of random mutagenesis 

3. Repeat 1 and 2

4. Transfer back to organism

5. Analysis

Genetic Engineering

What where earlier techniques for introduction of random mutagenesis and how are we doing it nowadays?

Earlier, UV light was used for dimer formation.


Today, we use error-prone PCR.

Genetic Engineering

What is molecular cloning

generation and propagation of recombinant DNA.

Genetic Engineering

Which steps are involved in molecular cloning

1. DNA isolation of vector and insert (gene of interest) 


2. Process DNA with restriction enzymes 


3. Ligation 


4. Transformation of host cell 


5. Selection and Screening 

Genetic Engineering

When is a organism genetically modified?

When recombinant DNA was introduced into it. 

Genetic Engineering

When and for what can GMOs be used? 

- to produce useful recombinant molecules

- to improve agronomic traits (by overexpression/repression of certain proteins or by showing new traits leading to e.g. herbicide resistance

Genetic Engineering

In general, what are the advantages and disadvantages of microorganisms like E. coli as GMOs? 

Advantages:

- genetics well understood

- unlimited quantities of protein generation possible 

- fermentation technology well understood (faster growth, cheap medium


Disadvantages

- eukaryotic proteins cannot be folded correctly by prokaryot and might be inactive

- formation of inclusion bodies possible

Genetic Engineering

What are the challenges of using cell cultures as GMOs? 

- Growth of cells (e.g. can they grow in fermenter?)

- Cell lines may have mutations and their extensiveness is not known (e.g. are they free of endogenous viruses?

Genetic Engineering

What are transgenic animals?

Modified animals that can produce desired products.

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