DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

Flashcards and summaries for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

The genome of cells is altered when cells differentiate in specific direction. 

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What is genetic equivalence? What is an evidence for that?

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

If each cell has the same genes, how can cells undergo different developments? Explain the mechanism.

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

In differential gene expression, how many genes are expressed?

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What happens with unused genes in differential gene expression

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What is the right order?


- Translation (1)

- RNA processing (2)

- Transcription (3)

- Posttranscriptional modification (4)


Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

On which levels can gene expression be regulated and how?

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Define "chromatin". 

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Which kind of histones do exist? 

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Why are histones positively charged

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

What is the basic unit of chromatin? 

Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Nucleosomes consist of a core of ____ histones around which ____ loops of DNA are wrapped (approx. _____ base pairs). 

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Exemplary flashcards for DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

The genome of cells is altered when cells differentiate in specific direction. 

Right. 

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

What is genetic equivalence? What is an evidence for that?

Genetic equivalence means that each somatic cell nucleus within an organism has identical chromosomes and therefore the same set of genes. 


Evidence for that is Dolly, the first adult vertebrate that was cloned from another adult. 


          

  •                         

                                                       

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

If each cell has the same genes, how can cells undergo different developments? Explain the mechanism.

By differential gene expression.


Mechanism:


  • only a small part of genetics are expressed in each cells which are specific for that cell type

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

In differential gene expression, how many genes are expressed?

Only a few.

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

What happens with unused genes in differential gene expression

They keep the potential for being expressed. 

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

What is the right order?


- Translation (1)

- RNA processing (2)

- Transcription (3)

- Posttranscriptional modification (4)


3, 2, 1, 4 

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

On which levels can gene expression be regulated and how?

- Differential gene transcription (regulates which genes are transcribed into nuclear RNA)


- Selective nuclear RNA processing (regulates which of the transcripts become messenger RNA


- Selective mRNA translation (regulates which of the mRNAs are translated into proteins


- Differential protein modification (regulates which proteins are allowed to remain and function in the cell

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

Define "chromatin". 

Eukaryotic DNA that forms a complex with proteins

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

Which kind of histones do exist? 

  • H1
  • H2A
  • H2B
  • H3
  • H4

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

Why are histones positively charged

Because they contain many lysines. 

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

What is the basic unit of chromatin? 

Nucleosome

DB Chapter 3: Basic Genetics

Nucleosomes consist of a core of ____ histones around which ____ loops of DNA are wrapped (approx. _____ base pairs). 

8; 2; 140 

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