International HR at Hochschule Aschaffenburg

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg

Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

What are the main reasons to form an IJV?

Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

What are the development phases of an IJV?

Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

What are HR activities during the development of an IJV?

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Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

In which way do cultural and institutional differences impact HR integration in IJVs?

Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

In which way do cultural and institutional differences impact HR integration in M&As?

Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

What are barriers that hinder SME to go international?

Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

What are some typical HR challenges in internationalised SMEs?

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Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

What are the main approaches to international staffing? 

Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

What does ethnocentric mean?

Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

What are advantages and disadvantages of an ethnocentric staffing approach?

Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

What does polycentric mean?

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What are the main similarities between domestic and international HRM?

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Exemplary flashcards for International HR at the Hochschule Aschaffenburg on StudySmarter:

International HR

What are the main reasons to form an IJV?

  • Gain general knowledge
  • Gain local knowledge
  • Government restrictions
  • Increased economy of scale
  • Spreading the risk (sharing financial risk)
  • Getting access to raw materials
  • Improve competitive advantage

International HR

What are the development phases of an IJV?

The stages are not independent from each other - activities in phase one directly influence activities in stage two. 

  1. Formation
    • Relationship between parent countries are at the center of interest
  2. Development
  3. Implementation
    • of the actual Joint Venture
  4. Avancement of activities 

International HR

What are HR activities during the development of an IJV?

HR activities are prominent during all the stages of development of an IJV and need to be aligned with the IJV strategies to maximise the communication between the IJV and the parent companies. The general activities of an HR managers such as recruitment, selection, training and development, performance management and compensation are also included in the activities. Furthermore the HR manager has to adapt to different roles during the development:


  • Partnership role
    • Need to take the needs of all stakeholders into account
    • Need to have a basic understanding of the business and the market
  • Change facilitator and strategy implementor
    • Need to actualise and implement new strategies involving communication and cooperation that are built on trust
  • Innovator
    • Need to be able to identify talent that are executing the IJV strategies
    • Need to adapt to any change during the IJV stages
  • Collaborator
    • Need to create win-win situations
      • Share rather than compete between the entities engaged with the IJV



International HR

In which way do cultural and institutional differences impact HR integration in IJVs?

Both companies want to be equally represented in the management board; holding key positions is a crucial part in negotiating. Therefore, board of management is usually composed of individuals from different cultural contexts.

  • Diversity may provide opportunity, though individuals might have problems working together
  • HR has to deal with different (cultural) expectations
  • Need to balance different management styles and strategic objectives from the parent companies
  • If the IJVs focuses too much on parent firm, it can negatively impact communication and decision-making process will be slowed down 

International HR

In which way do cultural and institutional differences impact HR integration in M&As?

HR can be key actor that is responsible for cultural integration. A sensitivity towards cultural differences are crucial for the success of M&A. 



  • Convergence across nationalities in HRM policies was evident in post-acquisition moves towards performance-related pay, training and team-based product development. 
  • Most acquirers made adjustments to suit the local culture. 


-> HR measures depend on the nationality and culture of the companies involved. 

International HR

What are barriers that hinder SME to go international?

HR related barriers include:

  • Lack of managerial time to deal with internalisation
  • Lack of personnel or qualified personnel 


Other barriers include:

  • Lack of working capital or financial resources
  • Inability to reach potential customers overseas
  • Lack of support from home government
  • Limited information on market


In comparison to larger companies, SMEs have less experience with environmental context in different countries, less power to withstand  regulations of the host-government, less reputation, less financial resources as well as fewer resources for managing international operations. 

International HR

What are some typical HR challenges in internationalised SMEs?

  • Importance of the founder/owner
    • Experience of the owner influences internationalization
      • Owner with less experience tend to choose a target market that is geographically and culturally close to the home country 
  • Recruitment, Selection and Retention
    • Most often managers that didn't make the cut in larger companies are choosing SMEs as second choice -> not as qualified
    • SMEs lack legitimacy compared to larger companies with strong international orientation
  • HR Development - the change of learning
    • SMEs activities usually only short-term orientated and not compatible with long-term strategic needs
    • Tend to have informal learning approach
      • Local Networks and Socialising > Formalised training
    • Training the employees is often seen as "unaffordable luxury" 
  • Expatriate Management
    • Focus on language courses rather than cross-cultural courses
      • For cross-cultural courses expatriates usually have to go to external training institutions
  • Limited Resources of the HR department and Outsourcing 
    • Financial capital, qualified human capital and time are scarce 
  • HR department usually focuses on transitive administrative tasks
    • The most important decisions are taken by the founder/owner
      • Takes away managerial time and resources 
      • Can interfere with managerial responsibility and negatively influence the revenue production
      • Managers oftentimes lack the expertise to manage complex HR decisions
  • Outsourcing might help but must be closely monitored 

International HR

What are the main approaches to international staffing? 

  • Ethnocentric
  • Polycentric
  • Geocentric
  • Regiocentric

International HR

What does ethnocentric mean?

  • Only a few subsidiaries have autonomy
  • Key positions are held by managers from HQ (domestic and foreign market)
  • Subsidiaries are managed by PCNs
  • Strategic decisions are made by HQ

International HR

What are advantages and disadvantages of an ethnocentric staffing approach?

Advantages:

  • Perceived lack of qualified staff (HCNs) is eliminated
  • Stable communication and coordination with HQ
  • Reduces risk for companies in early stages of internalisation
  • For experienced companies:
    • Removes unqualified employees 
    • Complies with all objectives
    • HQ can trust PCNs 


Disadvantages:

  • Limited promotion chances for HCN
    • Reduces motivation and productivity
    • Eventual turnover
  • Adaption takes long time
    • PCN managers make a lot of mistakes and bad decisions at first
  • Income gap between HCNs and PCNs


International HR

What does polycentric mean?

  • Each subsidiary is treated as separate entity with limited decision-making autonomy
  • Subsidiaries are managed by HCNs
    • Not promoted to HQ though
  • PCNs rarely transferred internationally

International HR

What are the main similarities between domestic and international HRM?

1. Human Resource Planning

2. Staffing (Recruitment, Selection and Placement)

3. Performance Management

4. Training and Development

5. Compensation and Benefits

6. Industrial relations

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