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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name the Levels of Autonomy in Divisional Structures. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Cost-Center 
  • A cost center is a function within an organization that does not directly add to profit but still costs money to operate such as the Accounting, HR or IT departments. 
  • A cost center indirectly contributes to a company‘s profit via operational excellence, customer service etc. 
  • The manager for a cost center is only responsible for keeping costs in line with budget and does not bear any responsibility regarding revenue or investment decisions. 

2. Profit-Center
  • A profit center is a division of an organization that directly adds to the corporations bottom line profitability. 
  • Is treated as a separate business that has the responsibility to achieve revenues 
  • Management has authority to decide for certain activities according to a success measure “earning profit” (profit, ROI)

3. Investment-Center 
  • Is a business unit that a organization utilizes with its own capital to generate returns that benefit the firm 
  • The Management has authority to decide according to a success measure (profit, ROI)
  • Additional responsibility to take investment decisions (how they would invest their revenue best)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the characteristics of a virtual team?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
A virtual team communicates and works via digital communication tools and technology. Thereby the location of the employees is not important as it only needs a proper internet connection to make the programms work. 

Characteristics: 
  • Organizational structure tends to be flatter with dim lines of authorities and hierarchies. This is needed to deliver faster results and encourage creativity in a highly competitive market. 
  • Knowledge Exchange has to be more frequent than in traditional teams. Members of virtual teams have a very limited or no informal access to information. Thus they need a lot more updates on projects and tasks. (Problem here: different time zones e.g.) 
  • Personal relationships are less likely to be built through virtual teams. Thus theres often a difficulty in building trust, cohesion and commitment among the members, which eventually can negatively affect the team performance. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name the elements of the cultural web. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The cultural web identifies six interrelated elements that help to make up the pattern or model fo the work environment. 

1. Stories
  • Are about important past events and people talked about inside and outside the company. Who and what the company chooses to immortalize says al lot about whit it values, and perceives as great behavior.

2. Rituals and Routines
  • The daily behavior and actions of people that signal acceptable behavior. This determines what is expected to happen in given situations, and what is valued by management (“the way we do things around here”)

3. Control systems
  • The ways of how the organization is controlled. Thsee include financial systems, quality systems and rewards including the way they are measured and distributed within the organization

4. Organizational structures
  • This includes both the structure defined by the organization chart, and the unwritten lines of power and influence that indicate whose contributions are most valued. 

5. Power structures
  • The most powerful managerial groupings in the organization. They are likely to get most associated with core assumptions and beliefs about what is important. 

6. Symbols
  • The visual representation of the company including logos, titles, furniture. These components represent the nature of an organization. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name the Advantages and Disadvantages of strong corporate cultures. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
A vivid (lebhafte) corporate culture presumes (voraussetzen) consistency of value concept and individual preferences of members in order to benefit from positive functional effects. 

Positive (functional) effects: 
  • Support coordination
  • High motivation and loyalty of employees
  • Efficient communication
  • Stability and reliability
  • Quick decision taking
  • Anticipative problem solving

Negative (dysfunctional) effects:
  • Tendency to foreclosure (Abschottung)
  • Restraints to new orientation
  • Increase of emotional barriers
  • Collective defensive behavior
  • Lack of flexibility 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the options of basic grouping?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Functional Grouping 
2. Divisional Grouping
3. Multi-focused Grouping
4. Horizontal Grouping 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are shared service centers and what are its principles?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Shared services is a concept of consolidation and centralization of homogeneous and standardized processes and services, which are not part of a core competence of a department. These shared services include the majority of support services e.g. finance, HR, information systems. The idea of shared service centers is to combine the advantages of external service providers and internal employees. There are several principles of shared services:

  • Price Transparency (Each service has its price. Business Units can determine how much service it wants)
  • Business Management (Manage the service like a business - not a fixt cost. Serve internal and potentially external customers)
  • Best Practices Proliferation (Identify and deploy Best Practices quickly and globally)
  • Market Responsiveness (Provide the service levels the Business unit wants)
  • Process Standardization (Develop process standards that can be maintained and improved quickly)
  • Service culture (Treat business units like customers, offering services they value and charging for each) 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Differences / Relationship between corporate centers and shared service centers.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Corporate Centers manage divisions and decentralized entities and have coordination and control functions. It may occur, that corporate centers don’t provide good quality service as they are established in an company either way, but this results into inefficient costs for the organization. Examples are HR or IT. An organization can decide to transform the corporate center in a shared service center in order to reduce costs and increase efficiency. 

The main differences between corporate centers and shared service centers are:
  • Shared service center generates revenues as their service now has to be paid by customers / corporate centers are “just there” 
  • Their customers can be internal departments of the daughter-companies or external customers, in case of too less costumers of the own company. 
  • Shared service center has the responibility to achieve revenues. 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Define Specialization.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Specialization is the extent to which labor is split into specific jobs with specified activities, also called division of labor. If specialization is intense each employee performs a narrow range of tasks. 
Division of labor can be done in different ways such as by

1. Professional knowledge 
(Sales, Production, Finance, Software Programming)

2. Horizontal Specialization
(natural and logic sequence of jobs the organization does e.g. assembly line)

3. Vertical Specialization
(according to line of hierarchy of authority e.g. Finance -> Accounting -> Debtor Bookkeeping) 
  • A job has a lower degree of vertical specialization the higher the degree of decision making and control is
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name and explain the Dimensions of Organizational Culture.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1.  Attention to Detail
  • Degree to which employees are expected to show precision, analysis and attention to detail 

2. Outcome Orientation
  • Degree to which managers focus on the outcome rather than focus on the way of how the outcome is achieved 

3. People Orientation
  • Degree to which management decisions take into account the effects on people in the organization

4. Team Orientation
  • Degree to which work is organized around teams rather than individuals 

5. Aggressiveness
  • Degree to which employees are aggressive and competitive rather than cooperative 

6. Stability
  • Degree to which organization decisions and actions emphasize maintaining the status quo 

7. Innovation and Risk Taking
  • Degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain the context in which centralization and decentralization can be put in. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Referring to the need of dividing tasks and jobs in an growing organization that lead to vertical hierarchy structures, one of the key decisions that has to be made is about what decisions can be made on which level and who can make them. According to this two concepts exist: centralization and decentralization wich are in practice often combined. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What does the term “organization” mean?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
An organization is a social entity which is goal-directed, designed as deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems, and linked to the external environment. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain the Cultural Iceberg Model of Edgar Schein. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Edgar Scheins Iceberg Model proposes that there are three levels in an organization‘s culture, whereby the basic assumptions shape values and the values shape practices and behavior, which are the visible part of the culture. 

First Level: Artifacts / Creations
  • Visible Layer of an organization that can be noticed by a visitor or an outsider
  • Contains Symbols, Rituals and Heroes/Role Models for example
  • These Artifacts are visible, but that doesn’t mean that they can be understood easily and by everyone alike. 

Second Level: Espoused (Unterstützte) Values 
  • Partly visible, partly tacit 
  • Consist of believes, values and attitudes shared by the members reflecting on “how things should be” 
  • The values help the organizational members classify situation and actions as either undesirable or desirable

Third Level: Basic Assumptions 
  • Mostly invisible, tacit
  • Belief that is taken for granted as a fact and is never challenged. Builds the core of the culture in any organization
  • Basic assumptions can for example be a assumption about the organizations relationship with its environment, or the appropriate ways to distribute power and responsibilities. 

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
Name the Levels of Autonomy in Divisional Structures. 
A:
1. Cost-Center 
  • A cost center is a function within an organization that does not directly add to profit but still costs money to operate such as the Accounting, HR or IT departments. 
  • A cost center indirectly contributes to a company‘s profit via operational excellence, customer service etc. 
  • The manager for a cost center is only responsible for keeping costs in line with budget and does not bear any responsibility regarding revenue or investment decisions. 

2. Profit-Center
  • A profit center is a division of an organization that directly adds to the corporations bottom line profitability. 
  • Is treated as a separate business that has the responsibility to achieve revenues 
  • Management has authority to decide for certain activities according to a success measure “earning profit” (profit, ROI)

3. Investment-Center 
  • Is a business unit that a organization utilizes with its own capital to generate returns that benefit the firm 
  • The Management has authority to decide according to a success measure (profit, ROI)
  • Additional responsibility to take investment decisions (how they would invest their revenue best)
Q:
What are the characteristics of a virtual team?
A:
A virtual team communicates and works via digital communication tools and technology. Thereby the location of the employees is not important as it only needs a proper internet connection to make the programms work. 

Characteristics: 
  • Organizational structure tends to be flatter with dim lines of authorities and hierarchies. This is needed to deliver faster results and encourage creativity in a highly competitive market. 
  • Knowledge Exchange has to be more frequent than in traditional teams. Members of virtual teams have a very limited or no informal access to information. Thus they need a lot more updates on projects and tasks. (Problem here: different time zones e.g.) 
  • Personal relationships are less likely to be built through virtual teams. Thus theres often a difficulty in building trust, cohesion and commitment among the members, which eventually can negatively affect the team performance. 
Q:
Name the elements of the cultural web. 
A:
The cultural web identifies six interrelated elements that help to make up the pattern or model fo the work environment. 

1. Stories
  • Are about important past events and people talked about inside and outside the company. Who and what the company chooses to immortalize says al lot about whit it values, and perceives as great behavior.

2. Rituals and Routines
  • The daily behavior and actions of people that signal acceptable behavior. This determines what is expected to happen in given situations, and what is valued by management (“the way we do things around here”)

3. Control systems
  • The ways of how the organization is controlled. Thsee include financial systems, quality systems and rewards including the way they are measured and distributed within the organization

4. Organizational structures
  • This includes both the structure defined by the organization chart, and the unwritten lines of power and influence that indicate whose contributions are most valued. 

5. Power structures
  • The most powerful managerial groupings in the organization. They are likely to get most associated with core assumptions and beliefs about what is important. 

6. Symbols
  • The visual representation of the company including logos, titles, furniture. These components represent the nature of an organization. 
Q:
Name the Advantages and Disadvantages of strong corporate cultures. 
A:
A vivid (lebhafte) corporate culture presumes (voraussetzen) consistency of value concept and individual preferences of members in order to benefit from positive functional effects. 

Positive (functional) effects: 
  • Support coordination
  • High motivation and loyalty of employees
  • Efficient communication
  • Stability and reliability
  • Quick decision taking
  • Anticipative problem solving

Negative (dysfunctional) effects:
  • Tendency to foreclosure (Abschottung)
  • Restraints to new orientation
  • Increase of emotional barriers
  • Collective defensive behavior
  • Lack of flexibility 
Q:
What are the options of basic grouping?
A:
1. Functional Grouping 
2. Divisional Grouping
3. Multi-focused Grouping
4. Horizontal Grouping 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What are shared service centers and what are its principles?
A:
Shared services is a concept of consolidation and centralization of homogeneous and standardized processes and services, which are not part of a core competence of a department. These shared services include the majority of support services e.g. finance, HR, information systems. The idea of shared service centers is to combine the advantages of external service providers and internal employees. There are several principles of shared services:

  • Price Transparency (Each service has its price. Business Units can determine how much service it wants)
  • Business Management (Manage the service like a business - not a fixt cost. Serve internal and potentially external customers)
  • Best Practices Proliferation (Identify and deploy Best Practices quickly and globally)
  • Market Responsiveness (Provide the service levels the Business unit wants)
  • Process Standardization (Develop process standards that can be maintained and improved quickly)
  • Service culture (Treat business units like customers, offering services they value and charging for each) 
Q:
Differences / Relationship between corporate centers and shared service centers.
A:
Corporate Centers manage divisions and decentralized entities and have coordination and control functions. It may occur, that corporate centers don’t provide good quality service as they are established in an company either way, but this results into inefficient costs for the organization. Examples are HR or IT. An organization can decide to transform the corporate center in a shared service center in order to reduce costs and increase efficiency. 

The main differences between corporate centers and shared service centers are:
  • Shared service center generates revenues as their service now has to be paid by customers / corporate centers are “just there” 
  • Their customers can be internal departments of the daughter-companies or external customers, in case of too less costumers of the own company. 
  • Shared service center has the responibility to achieve revenues. 

Q:
Define Specialization.
A:
Specialization is the extent to which labor is split into specific jobs with specified activities, also called division of labor. If specialization is intense each employee performs a narrow range of tasks. 
Division of labor can be done in different ways such as by

1. Professional knowledge 
(Sales, Production, Finance, Software Programming)

2. Horizontal Specialization
(natural and logic sequence of jobs the organization does e.g. assembly line)

3. Vertical Specialization
(according to line of hierarchy of authority e.g. Finance -> Accounting -> Debtor Bookkeeping) 
  • A job has a lower degree of vertical specialization the higher the degree of decision making and control is
Q:
Name and explain the Dimensions of Organizational Culture.
A:
1.  Attention to Detail
  • Degree to which employees are expected to show precision, analysis and attention to detail 

2. Outcome Orientation
  • Degree to which managers focus on the outcome rather than focus on the way of how the outcome is achieved 

3. People Orientation
  • Degree to which management decisions take into account the effects on people in the organization

4. Team Orientation
  • Degree to which work is organized around teams rather than individuals 

5. Aggressiveness
  • Degree to which employees are aggressive and competitive rather than cooperative 

6. Stability
  • Degree to which organization decisions and actions emphasize maintaining the status quo 

7. Innovation and Risk Taking
  • Degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks 
Q:
Explain the context in which centralization and decentralization can be put in. 
A:
Referring to the need of dividing tasks and jobs in an growing organization that lead to vertical hierarchy structures, one of the key decisions that has to be made is about what decisions can be made on which level and who can make them. According to this two concepts exist: centralization and decentralization wich are in practice often combined. 
Q:
What does the term “organization” mean?
A:
An organization is a social entity which is goal-directed, designed as deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems, and linked to the external environment. 
Q:
Explain the Cultural Iceberg Model of Edgar Schein. 
A:
Edgar Scheins Iceberg Model proposes that there are three levels in an organization‘s culture, whereby the basic assumptions shape values and the values shape practices and behavior, which are the visible part of the culture. 

First Level: Artifacts / Creations
  • Visible Layer of an organization that can be noticed by a visitor or an outsider
  • Contains Symbols, Rituals and Heroes/Role Models for example
  • These Artifacts are visible, but that doesn’t mean that they can be understood easily and by everyone alike. 

Second Level: Espoused (Unterstützte) Values 
  • Partly visible, partly tacit 
  • Consist of believes, values and attitudes shared by the members reflecting on “how things should be” 
  • The values help the organizational members classify situation and actions as either undesirable or desirable

Third Level: Basic Assumptions 
  • Mostly invisible, tacit
  • Belief that is taken for granted as a fact and is never challenged. Builds the core of the culture in any organization
  • Basic assumptions can for example be a assumption about the organizations relationship with its environment, or the appropriate ways to distribute power and responsibilities. 

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