Analytical Thinking And Critical Reasoning at Frankfurt School Of Finance & Management | Flashcards & Summaries

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what is an inductive argument?

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an inductive argument is one whose conclusion is supposed to be probable given its premises (if the premises are all true, the conclusion likely is too)

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example for a strong and a weak inductive argument

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strong:

1. Maria was born in Frankfurt

2. most people born in Frankfurt speak German

-> Maria speaks German


weak:

1. Maria likes Schnitzel

2. Most German speakers like Schnitzel

-> Maria speaks German

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how is a set defined?

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- a set is an unordered collection of things of any kind (notation is in curly brackets)


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what is a statistical argument?

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-> they aim to infer something fro relevant statistics

ex: onlyy 0.125% if Germans are Buddhists. Stephan is German. So Stephan isn't a Buddhist


criteria for strength: is the relevant statistical claim strong?

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three rules about sets

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- a set can't contain duplicates. every item just appears once

-a set can contain any number of members, from none to infinitely many

-the set with no members is called the empty set, denoted by: null Mit Schrägstrich Durch 

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what is inductive generalization?


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-> from the fact that most cases have had a certain property, infer that the next case will too.

ex: all the math classes I've taken so far have been easy. so the next one is going to be easy as well


criteria for strength: is the next case just like the previous ones? is there a reason to think the cases will tend to resemble each other?

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what are the four types of inductive arguments?

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1. statistical argument

2. inductive generalization

3. analogical argument

4.inference to the best explanation

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inference to the best explanation 

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-> from a body of facts, aim to infer the best explanation of those facts

ex: my window is broken, my drawers are open and my laptop is gone. someone must have broken in


criteria for strength: does the hypothesis really explain the data? is it a good explanation? are there better explanations available?

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what happens if an argument is valid, but TFL is unable to show us this? 

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we use set theory and Venn diagrams

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analogical argument?

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-> from the fact that two cases are similar in certain ways, aim to infer further similarities

ex: whales and dolphins have lottos properties in common. siphons have sharp teeth. so whales must have sharp teeth as well


criteria for strength: how extensive is the resemblance between the things being compared? do they resemble each other in the most relevant ways?

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how do you call an extra piece of information that makes a inductive argument weaker?

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-defeater 

example:

1. Maria was born in Frankfurt 

2. Most people born in Frankfurt speak German

3. Marias parents were Brazilians on vacation

-> Maria speaks German

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inductive strength: what makes an inductive argument strong? 

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- when the conclusion is probable by looking at its premises 

- inductive strength comes in degrees: some inductive arguments are stronger than others

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Q:

what is an inductive argument?

A:

an inductive argument is one whose conclusion is supposed to be probable given its premises (if the premises are all true, the conclusion likely is too)

Q:

example for a strong and a weak inductive argument

A:

strong:

1. Maria was born in Frankfurt

2. most people born in Frankfurt speak German

-> Maria speaks German


weak:

1. Maria likes Schnitzel

2. Most German speakers like Schnitzel

-> Maria speaks German

Q:

how is a set defined?

A:

- a set is an unordered collection of things of any kind (notation is in curly brackets)


Q:

what is a statistical argument?

A:

-> they aim to infer something fro relevant statistics

ex: onlyy 0.125% if Germans are Buddhists. Stephan is German. So Stephan isn't a Buddhist


criteria for strength: is the relevant statistical claim strong?

Q:

three rules about sets

A:

- a set can't contain duplicates. every item just appears once

-a set can contain any number of members, from none to infinitely many

-the set with no members is called the empty set, denoted by: null Mit Schrägstrich Durch 

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Q:

what is inductive generalization?


A:

-> from the fact that most cases have had a certain property, infer that the next case will too.

ex: all the math classes I've taken so far have been easy. so the next one is going to be easy as well


criteria for strength: is the next case just like the previous ones? is there a reason to think the cases will tend to resemble each other?

Q:

what are the four types of inductive arguments?

A:

1. statistical argument

2. inductive generalization

3. analogical argument

4.inference to the best explanation

Q:

inference to the best explanation 

A:

-> from a body of facts, aim to infer the best explanation of those facts

ex: my window is broken, my drawers are open and my laptop is gone. someone must have broken in


criteria for strength: does the hypothesis really explain the data? is it a good explanation? are there better explanations available?

Q:

what happens if an argument is valid, but TFL is unable to show us this? 

A:

we use set theory and Venn diagrams

Q:

analogical argument?

A:

-> from the fact that two cases are similar in certain ways, aim to infer further similarities

ex: whales and dolphins have lottos properties in common. siphons have sharp teeth. so whales must have sharp teeth as well


criteria for strength: how extensive is the resemblance between the things being compared? do they resemble each other in the most relevant ways?

Q:

how do you call an extra piece of information that makes a inductive argument weaker?

A:

-defeater 

example:

1. Maria was born in Frankfurt 

2. Most people born in Frankfurt speak German

3. Marias parents were Brazilians on vacation

-> Maria speaks German

Q:

inductive strength: what makes an inductive argument strong? 

A:

- when the conclusion is probable by looking at its premises 

- inductive strength comes in degrees: some inductive arguments are stronger than others

analytical thinking and critical reasoning

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