HR 2 at Fachhochschulstudiengänge Krems IMC

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What is development? 

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Training expenditure allocation by type of worker (%)

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Strategic model of training 
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Step 1 of strategic model of training 

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Step 2 of strategic model of training

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Step 3 of strategic model of training

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Types of training for non-managerial employees
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Methods for management development 

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Step 4 of strategic model of training

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Additional training and development programs

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To implement a successful program in basic and remedial skills: 
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What is training? 

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HR 2

What is development? 
Effort that is oriented towards broadening an individual´s skills for future responsibilities;
The process where someone grows or changes and becomes more advanced 

HR 2

Training expenditure allocation by type of worker (%)
Employees: 51%
Executives: 22%
Managers/Supervisors: 27% 

HR 2

Strategic model of training 
  • Phase 1: needs assessment 
    • Organization
    • Task analysis
    • Person analysis 
  • Phase 2: Design 
    • Instructional objectives 
    • Trainee
    • Learning principles 
  • Phase 3: Implementation 
    • On-the-job methods
    • Off-the-job methods
    • Management development
  • Phase 4: Evaluation 
    • Reaction
    • Learning
    • Behavior (Transfer) 
    • Results 

HR 2

Step 1 of strategic model of training 
Needs assessment:
  • Organization analysis: 
    • Of environment, strategies & resources to determine where to emphasize training
  • Task analysis: 
    • Of the activities to be performed in order to determine the KSAs needed
  • Person analysis: 
    • Of performance, knowledge & skills in order to determine who needs training

HR 2

Step 2 of strategic model of training
Designing the training program
  • Instructional objectives 
    • Represent desired outcomes 
    • Specific & measurable 
    • Tell what is important 
  • Trainee readiness & motivation
    • Use positive reinforcement 
    • Eliminate threats & punishment 
    • Flexible
    • Participants set personal goals 
    • Design interesting instruction
    • Break down physical & psychological obstacles to learning 
  • Principles of learning 
    • Goal setting 
    • Individual differences
    • active practice & repetition 
    • Whole-vs.-part learning 
    • Massed-vs.-distributed learning 
    • Feedback & reinforcement 
    • Meaningfulness of presentation 
    • Modeling 
  • Characteristics of successful trainers 

HR 2

Step 3 of strategic model of training
  • Nature of training
  • Types of training
  • Organizational extent of training
  • Importance of training outcomes 

HR 2

Types of training for non-managerial employees
1. on-the-job training (OJT)
2. internship training
  • Opportunity offered by an employer to potential employees, called interns, to work at a firm for a fixed, limited period of time. Usually undergraduates or students 
3. classroom instruction
  • Enables the maximum number of trainees to be handled by the minimum number of instructors
    • „Blended“ learning - lectures & demonstrations are combined with films, DVD & videotapes or computer instructions 
4. programmed instruction
5. Audiovisual methods
  • Video recordings
  • Teleconferencing
  • Webinars, blogs 
6. simulation method
  • Emphasized by using „simulation“ experience through equipment & its operation at a minimum cost & maximum safety 
  • Used when it is either impractical or unwise to train employees on the actual equipment used on the job 
7. e-learning
  • Electronic learning, using a computer to deliver part or all of a course whether it´s in a school, part of your mandatory business training or a full distance learning course 
  • Benefits include
    • Decreased material costs 
    • Increased productivity 
    • Standardization
    • E-learning supports the learner´s development 
    • Real-time access 
    • Freedom to fail 

HR 2

Methods for management development 
  • On-the-job experience
  • Seminars & conferences 
  • Case studies
  • Management simulations 
  • Role play
    • Successful role play requires that instructors: 
      • Comfortable with each other 
      • Introducing specific situation 
      • Help prepare, ask to describe potential characters 
      • Realize volunteers 
      • Prepare observers by giving tasks 
      • Guide enactment through its bumps 
      • Keep it short 
      • Discuss enactment & prepare bulleted points 
  • Coaching
  • Corporate universities 
    • Own „universities“ where they train their employees & future managers 
  • Research & development 
  • Tuition assistance programmes 
    • About half of all large corporations offer their employees tuition assistance if they take courses related to the firm´s business 

HR 2

Step 4 of strategic model of training
Evaluation of the training programmes
  • Trainee reactions
    • What were your learning goals for this program? 
    • Did you achieve your learning goals? 
    • Did you like the program offered? 
    • Would you recommend it to others who have similar learning goals? 
    • What suggestions do you have for improving the program? 
    • Should the organization continue to offer it? 
  • Extent of learning
  • Transfer to the job 
    • Transfer of training: effective application of principles learned to what is required on the job 
    • Maximizing the transfers of training: 
      • Feature identical elements 
      • Focus on general principles 
      • Establish a climate for transfer 
      • Give employees transfer strategies 
  • Results assessment 
    • Measuring the utility of training programs: 
      • Calculating the benefits derived from training: 
        • Hoch much did quality improve because of the training program? 
        • Hoch much has it contributed to profits? 
        • What reduction in turnover and wasted materials did the company get after training? 
        • Hoch much has productivity increased and by how much have costs been reduced? 

HR 2

Additional training and development programs
  • Orientation
    • A formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs & their work units 
    • Benefits: 
      • Lower turnover 
      • Increased productivity 
      • Improved employee morale
      • Lower recruiting and training costs 
      • Facilitation of learning
      • Reduction of the new employee ´s anxiety 
  • On-boarding
    • Process of systematically socializing new employees to help them get „on board“ with an organization 
    • On-boarding goes beyond just orienting new employees to their new environments. It brings them into the organization so they feel like they are part of it 
  • Cross-training
    • Process of training employees to do multiple jobs within an organization, improving their roles outside their current responsibilities:
      • Gives firms flexible capacity 
      • Cuts turnover through job enlargement and enrichment 
      • Increase productivity, employee motivation 
      • Lays the foundation for career rather than dead-end jobs 

HR 2

To implement a successful program in basic and remedial skills: 
  • Explain to employees why and how the training will help them in their jobs 
  • Relate the training to the employee ´s goals 
  • Respect and consider participant experiences and use these as a resource 
  • Use a task-centered or problem-centered approach so that participants „learn by doing“ 
  • Give feedback on progress toward meeting learning objectives

HR 2

What is training? 
  • Effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members 
  • Teaching oneself or others, any skills or knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies 
  • Narrowly focused & oriented toward short-term performance concerns

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HR at

Universität Klagenfurt

HR at

FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management

HRM1 at

BFH - Bern University of Applied Sciences

Hr at

FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management

LF 2 at

bbw Hochschule

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