Methoden Der Produktentwicklung at Fachhochschule Lübeck | Flashcards & Summaries

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Define Model

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A model is a simplified description of reality. Thus, is a form of abstraction of reality. It helps to understand
complexity and to deal with the limitations of the human mind.

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What is function model? What is its purpose?

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a function model models the functions of a technical system and their relationships

Purpose

• analysis and understanding of the desired technical system
• basis for the fuctional concept an the search for solutions
• black-box approach, means a solution neutral formulation of requirements

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Name possible types of elements and relations.

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Elements

• design variable, attributes
• functions
• requirements
• parts of the product, components
• states
• individuals, groups, stakeholders

Relations

• unidirectional
• spatial
• related to communication
• directed
• logical
• necessary/sufficient condition
• "requires"
• INUS
• "contains" (for decompostition)
• flow of material / energy
• flow of information
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Clustering

Objective

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organize many elements with pair-wise relationships / dependencies into groups with a small number of relationships / dependencies between seperate groups

used for modularization of complex products eg product family design

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Sequencing

Goal

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• reordering of rows and columns of a DSM with the objective of arranging all existing dependecies at one side or at least asclose as possible to the diagonal
• produces "smaller" feedback lops
• triangular matrix - process without any iterations steps, no feedback loops
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Which attributes should an ADG contain?

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• may change during design or use of the product and are
• necessary to formulate INUS conditions > building plan for requirement derivation.
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Compare ADG to DMM and QFD!

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• resolves dependencies in detail
• higher modelling effort

DMM - 2-level model, maps two domains onto each other

QFD - 2 1/2 model

• does not fully resolve dependencies between design variables
• easier to create, visualize and communicate
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Challanges of Solution Generation

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• Search Space is not the Solution Space
• interpretation of the problem may depend on the designer
• more than one solution of different value
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Solution methods with quanitative models.

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• simplified models
• Bsp. restrain system in car
• simplify by focusing on most relevant effects
• reverse abstraction
• solution spaces
• Bsp. front crahs vehicle design
• use a physical surrogate model (Ersatzmodell)
• compute solution spaces here for force-deformation characteristics
• Experience-based Iteration
• Bsp. Front crahs vehicle design, component design
• trial and error solution generation to sub-problems
• supported by engineering judgement
• if requirements not independet, risk of iteration on system level
• Numerical Optimization
• Bsp. Front Crash vehicle design, component design
• Input: iojective function and constraint functions (optimization problem min f subject to g)
• Output: optimal design
• Product Family Design
• Bsp. Vehicle Chassis Design
• common components can be identified by properies in overlapping solution spaces
• Top-down vs Bottom-up Development
• Top-down: design by reverse abstaction
• buttom-up: evaluation
• combination possible (good design with proven ability to build it)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is a quantitative model?

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Quantitative models are compact representations where a (single) (differential or difference) equation may describe the performance of the system for a large set of input functions and initial states

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Define Product Family.

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Collection of products and components that may be shared

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What are decisions driven by? Why use methods? How do you pick a method?

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Driven by

• expreience
• intuition
• feeling
> subjective process

use methodes to

• rationalize and organize ingredients of decision process
• making reasons or preferences transparent to others

choosing methods depends on

• depth of analysis needed
• available informatio and knowledge
• effort willing to spend
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Q:

Define Model

A:

A model is a simplified description of reality. Thus, is a form of abstraction of reality. It helps to understand
complexity and to deal with the limitations of the human mind.

Q:

What is function model? What is its purpose?

A:

a function model models the functions of a technical system and their relationships

Purpose

• analysis and understanding of the desired technical system
• basis for the fuctional concept an the search for solutions
• black-box approach, means a solution neutral formulation of requirements

Q:

Name possible types of elements and relations.

A:

Elements

• design variable, attributes
• functions
• requirements
• parts of the product, components
• states
• individuals, groups, stakeholders

Relations

• unidirectional
• spatial
• related to communication
• directed
• logical
• necessary/sufficient condition
• "requires"
• INUS
• "contains" (for decompostition)
• flow of material / energy
• flow of information
Q:

Clustering

Objective

A:

organize many elements with pair-wise relationships / dependencies into groups with a small number of relationships / dependencies between seperate groups

used for modularization of complex products eg product family design

Q:

Sequencing

Goal

A:
• reordering of rows and columns of a DSM with the objective of arranging all existing dependecies at one side or at least asclose as possible to the diagonal
• produces "smaller" feedback lops
• triangular matrix - process without any iterations steps, no feedback loops
Q:

Which attributes should an ADG contain?

A:
• may change during design or use of the product and are
• necessary to formulate INUS conditions > building plan for requirement derivation.
Q:

Compare ADG to DMM and QFD!

A:

• resolves dependencies in detail
• higher modelling effort

DMM - 2-level model, maps two domains onto each other

QFD - 2 1/2 model

• does not fully resolve dependencies between design variables
• easier to create, visualize and communicate
Q:

Challanges of Solution Generation

A:
• Search Space is not the Solution Space
• interpretation of the problem may depend on the designer
• more than one solution of different value
Q:

Solution methods with quanitative models.

A:
• simplified models
• Bsp. restrain system in car
• simplify by focusing on most relevant effects
• reverse abstraction
• solution spaces
• Bsp. front crahs vehicle design
• use a physical surrogate model (Ersatzmodell)
• compute solution spaces here for force-deformation characteristics
• Experience-based Iteration
• Bsp. Front crahs vehicle design, component design
• trial and error solution generation to sub-problems
• supported by engineering judgement
• if requirements not independet, risk of iteration on system level
• Numerical Optimization
• Bsp. Front Crash vehicle design, component design
• Input: iojective function and constraint functions (optimization problem min f subject to g)
• Output: optimal design
• Product Family Design
• Bsp. Vehicle Chassis Design
• common components can be identified by properies in overlapping solution spaces
• Top-down vs Bottom-up Development
• Top-down: design by reverse abstaction
• buttom-up: evaluation
• combination possible (good design with proven ability to build it)
Q:

What is a quantitative model?

A:

Quantitative models are compact representations where a (single) (differential or difference) equation may describe the performance of the system for a large set of input functions and initial states

Q:

Define Product Family.

A:

Collection of products and components that may be shared

Q:

What are decisions driven by? Why use methods? How do you pick a method?

A:

Driven by

• expreience
• intuition
• feeling
> subjective process

use methodes to

• rationalize and organize ingredients of decision process
• making reasons or preferences transparent to others

choosing methods depends on

• depth of analysis needed
• available informatio and knowledge
• effort willing to spend

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